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split

Definition

split

Splits a chunk in a sharded cluster into two chunks. The mongos instance splits and manages chunks automatically, but for exceptional circumstances the split command does allow administrators to manually create splits. See Split Chunks in a Sharded Cluster for information on these circumstances, and on the MongoDB shell commands that wrap split.

The split command uses the following form:

db.adminCommand( { split: <database>.<collection>,
                   <find|middle|bounds> } )

The split command takes a document with the following fields:

Field Type Description
split string The name of the collection where the chunk exists. Specify the collection’s full namespace, including the database name.
find document

An query statement that specifies an equality match on the shard key. The match selects the chunk that contains the specified document. You must specify only one of the following: find, bounds, or middle.

You cannot use the find option on an empty collection.

bounds array

New in version 2.4: The bounds of a chunk to split. bounds applies to chunks in collections partitioned using a hashed shard key. The parameter’s array must consist of two documents specifying the lower and upper shard-key values of the chunk. The values must match the minimum and maximum values of an existing chunk. Specify only one of the following: find, bounds, or middle.

You cannot use the bounds option on an empty collection.

middle document The document to use as the split point to create two chunks. split requires one of the following options: find, bounds, or middle.

Considerations

When used with either the find or the bounds option, the split command splits the chunk along the median. As such, the command cannot use the find or the bounds option to split an empty chunk since an empty chunk has no median.

To create splits in empty chunks, use either the middle option with the split command or use the splitAt command.

Command Formats

To create a chunk split, connect to a mongos instance, and issue the following command to the admin database:

db.adminCommand( { split: <database>.<collection>,
                   find: <document> } )

Or:

db.adminCommand( { split: <database>.<collection>,
                   middle: <document> } )

Or:

db.adminCommand( { split: <database>.<collection>,
                   bounds: [ <lower>, <upper> ] } )

To create a split for a collection that uses a hashed shard key, use the bounds parameter. Do not use the middle parameter for this purpose.

Warning

Be careful when splitting data in a sharded collection to create new chunks. When you shard a collection that has existing data, MongoDB automatically creates chunks to evenly distribute the collection. To split data effectively in a sharded cluster you must consider the number of documents in a chunk and the average document size to create a uniform chunk size. When chunks have irregular sizes, shards may have an equal number of chunks but have very different data sizes. Avoid creating splits that lead to a collection with differently sized chunks.

See also

moveChunk, sh.moveChunk(), sh.splitAt(), and sh.splitFind(), which wrap the functionality of split.

Examples

The following sections provide examples of the split command.

Split a Chunk in Half

db.runCommand( { split : "test.people", find : { _id : 99 } } )

The split command identifies the chunk in the people collection of the test database, that holds documents that match { _id : 99 }. split does not require that a match exist, in order to identify the appropriate chunk. Then the command splits it into two chunks of equal size.

Note

split creates two equal chunks by range as opposed to size, and does not use the selected point as a boundary for the new chunks

Define an Arbitrary Split Point

To define an arbitrary split point, use the following form:

db.runCommand( { split : "test.people", middle : { _id : 99 } } )

The split command identifies the chunk in the people collection of the test database, that would hold documents matching the query { _id : 99 }. split does not require that a match exist, in order to identify the appropriate chunk. Then the command splits it into two chunks, with the matching document as the lower bound of one of the split chunks.

This form is typically used when pre-splitting data in a collection.

Split a Chunk Using Values of a Hashed Shard Key

This example uses the hashed shard key userid in a people collection of a test database. The following command uses an array holding two single-field documents to represent the minimum and maximum values of the hashed shard key to split the chunk:

db.runCommand( { split: "test.people",
                  bounds : [ { userid: NumberLong("-5838464104018346494") },
                             { userid: NumberLong("-5557153028469814163") }
             ] } )

Note

MongoDB uses the 64-bit NumberLong type to represent the hashed value.

Use sh.status() to see the existing bounds of the shard keys.

Metadata Lock Error

If another process in the mongos, such as a balancer process, changes metadata while split is running, you may see a metadata lock error.

errmsg: "The collection's metadata lock is already taken."

This message indicates that the split has failed with no side effects. Retry the split command.

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