MongoDB Backup Methods¶
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When deploying MongoDB in production, you should have a strategy for capturing and restoring backups in the case of data loss events. There are several ways to back up MongoDB clusters:
- Backup by Copying Underlying Data Files
- Backup a Database with mongodump
- MongoDB Cloud Manager Backup
- Ops Manager Backup Software
Backup by Copying Underlying Data Files¶
You can create a backup by copying MongoDB’s underlying data files.
If the volume where MongoDB stores data files supports point in time snapshots, you can use these snapshots to create backups of a MongoDB system at an exact moment in time.
File systems snapshots are an operating system volume manager feature, and are not specific to MongoDB. The mechanics of snapshots depend on the underlying storage system. For example, if you use Amazon’s EBS storage system for EC2 supports snapshots. On Linux the LVM manager can create a snapshot.
To get a correct snapshot of a running
mongod process, you
must have journaling enabled and the journal must reside on the same
logical volume as the other MongoDB data files. Without journaling
enabled, there is no guarantee that the snapshot
will be consistent or valid.
To get a consistent snapshot of a sharded system, you must disable the balancer and capture a snapshot from every shard and a config server at approximately the same moment in time.
If your storage system does not support snapshots, you can copy the
files directly using
rsync, or a similar tool. Since
copying multiple files is not an atomic operation, you must stop all
writes to the
mongod before copying the files. Otherwise, you will
copy the files in an invalid state.
Backups produced by copying the underlying data do not support point
in time recovery for replica sets and are difficult to manage for
larger sharded clusters. Additionally, these backups are larger
because they include the indexes and duplicate underlying storage
padding and fragmentation.
mongodump, by contrast, creates
For more information, see the Backup and Restore with Filesystem Snapshots and Backup a Sharded Cluster with Filesystem Snapshots for complete instructions on using LVM to create snapshots. Also see Back up and Restore Processes for MongoDB on Amazon EC2.
mongorestore are simple and
efficient for backing up small MongoDB deployments, for partial backup
and restores based on a query, syncing from production to staging or
development environments, or changing the storage engine of a standalone.
mongodump excludes the content of the
local database in its output.
Data Compression Handling¶
Applications can continue to modify data while
captures the output. For replica sets,
--oplog option to include in its
output oplog entries that occur during the
operation. This allows the corresponding
operation to replay the captured oplog. To restore a backup created
MongoDB Cloud Manager Backup¶
The MongoDB Cloud Manager supports the backing up and restoring of MongoDB deployments.
MongoDB Cloud Manager continually backs up MongoDB replica sets and sharded clusters by reading the oplog data from your MongoDB deployment.
MongoDB Cloud Manager Backup offers point in time recovery of MongoDB replica sets and a consistent snapshot of sharded clusters.
MongoDB Cloud Manager achieves point in time recovery by storing oplog data so that it can create a restore for any moment in time in the last 24 hours for a particular replica set or sharded cluster. Sharded cluster snapshots are difficult to achieve with other MongoDB backup methods.
To restore a MongoDB deployment from an MongoDB Cloud Manager Backup snapshot, you download
a compressed archive of your MongoDB data files and distribute those
files before restarting the
Ops Manager Backup Software¶
MongoDB Subscribers can install and run the same core software that powers MongoDB Cloud Manager Backup on their own infrastructure. Ops Manager, an on-premise solution, has similar functionality to the cloud version and is available with Enterprise Advanced subscriptions.
- Backup and Restore with Filesystem Snapshots
- An outline of procedures for creating MongoDB data set backups using system-level file snapshot tool, such as LVM or native storage appliance tools.
- Restore a Replica Set from MongoDB Backups
- Describes procedure for restoring a replica set from an archived
backup such as a
mongodumpor MongoDB Cloud Manager Backup file.
- Back Up and Restore with MongoDB Tools
- Describes a procedure for exporting the contents of a database to either a binary dump or a textual exchange format, and for importing these files into a database.
- Backup and Restore Sharded Clusters
- Detailed procedures and considerations for backing up sharded clusters and single shards.
- Recover a Standalone after an Unexpected Shutdown
- Recover data from MongoDB data files that were not properly closed or have an invalid state.