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The following checklist, along with the Development list, provides recommendations to help you avoid issues in your production MongoDB deployment.
- Align your disk partitions with your RAID configuration.
- Avoid using NFS drives for your
dbPath. Using NFS drives can result in degraded and unstable performance. See: Remote Filesystems for more information.
- VMWare users should use VMWare virtual drives over NFS.
- Linux/Unix: format your drives into XFS or EXT4. If possible, use
XFS as it generally performs better with MongoDB.
- With the WiredTiger storage engine, use of XFS is strongly recommended to avoid performance issues found when using EXT4 with WiredTiger.
- If using RAID, you may need to configure XFS with your RAID geometry.
- Windows: use the NTFS file system. Do not use any FAT file system (i.e. FAT 16/32/exFAT).
- Verify that all non-hidden replica set members are identically provisioned in terms of their RAM, CPU, disk, network setup, etc.
- Configure the oplog size to
suit your use case:
- The replication oplog window should cover normal maintenance and downtime windows to avoid the need for a full resync.
- The replication oplog window should cover the time needed to restore a replica set member, either by an initial sync or by restoring from the last backup.
- Ensure that your replica set includes at least three data-bearing nodes
w:majoritywrite concern. Three data-bearing nodes are required for replica set-wide data durability.
- Use hostnames when configuring replica set members, rather than IP addresses.
- Ensure full bidirectional network connectivity between all
- Ensure that each host can resolve itself.
- Ensure that your replica set contains an odd number of voting members.
- Ensure that
- For high availability, deploy your replica set into a minimum of three data centers.
Journaling: MMAPv1 Storage Engine¶
- Ensure that all instances use journaling.
- Place the journal on its own low-latency disk for write-intensive workloads. Note that this will affect snapshot-style backups as the files constituting the state of the database will reside on separate volumes.
- Use RAID10 and SSD drives for optimal performance.
- SAN and Virtualization:
Deployments to Cloud Hardware¶
- Windows Azure: Adjust the TCP keepalive (
tcp_keepalive_time) to 100-120. The default TTL for TCP connections on Windows Azure load balancers is too slow for MongoDB’s connection pooling behavior.
- Use MongoDB version 2.6.4 or later on systems with high-latency storage, such as Windows Azure, as these versions include performance improvements for those systems. See: Azure Deployment Recommendations for more information.
Operating System Configuration¶
- Turn off transparent hugepages and defrag. See Transparent Huge Pages Settings for more information.
- Adjust the readahead settings on the devices storing your database files to suit your use case. If your working set is bigger that the available RAM, and the document access pattern is random, consider lowering the readahead to 32 or 16. Evaluate different settings to find an optimal value that maximizes the resident memory and lowers the number of page faults.
- Use the
deadlinedisk schedulers for SSD drives.
- Use the
noopdisk scheduler for virtualized drives in guest VMs.
- Disable NUMA or set vm.zone_reclaim_mode to 0 and run
mongodinstances with node interleaving. See: MongoDB and NUMA Hardware for more information.
- Adjust the
ulimitvalues on your hardware to suit your use case. If multiple
mongosinstances are running under the same user, scale the
ulimitvalues accordingly. See: UNIX ulimit Settings for more information.
- Configure sufficient file handles (
fs.file-max), kernel pid limit (
kernel.pid_max), and maximum threads per process (
kernel.threads-max) for your deployment. For large systems, the following values provide a good starting point:
fs.file-maxvalue of 98000,
kernel.pid_maxvalue of 64000, and
kernel.threads-maxvalue of 64000
- Ensure that your system has swap space configured. Refer to your operating system’s documentation for details on appropriate sizing.
- Ensure that the system default TCP keepalive is set correctly. A value of 300 often provides better performance for replica sets and sharded clusters. See: Does TCP keepalive time affect MongoDB Deployments? in the Frequently Asked Questions for more information.
- Consider disabling NTFS “last access time” updates. This is
analogous to disabling
atimeon Unix-like systems.
- Schedule periodic tests of your back up and restore process to have time estimates on hand, and to verify its functionality.
Use MongoDB Cloud Manager or Ops Manager, an on-premise solution available in MongoDB Enterprise Advanced or another monitoring system to monitor key database metrics and set up alerts for them. Include alerts for the following metrics:
- lock percent (for the MMAPv1 storage engine)
- replication lag
- replication oplog window
- page faults
Monitor hardware statistics for your servers. In particular, pay attention to the disk use, CPU, and available disk space.
In the absence of disk space monitoring, or as a precaution:
- Create a dummy 4GB file on the
storage.dbPathdrive to ensure available space if the disk becomes full.
- A combination of
cron+dfcan alert when disk space hits a high-water mark, if no other monitoring tool is available.
- Create a dummy 4GB file on the
- Configure load balancers to enable “sticky sessions” or “client affinity”, with a sufficient timeout for existing connections.
- Avoid placing load balancers between MongoDB cluster or replica set components.