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Query for Null or Missing Fields

Different query operators in MongoDB treat null values differently.

This page provides examples of operations that query for null values using the db.collection.find() method in the mongo shell. The examples on this page use the inventory collection. To populate the inventory collection, run the following:

This page provides examples of operations that query for null values using the pymongo.collection.Collection.find() method in the PyMongo Python driver. The examples on this page use the inventory collection. To populate the inventory collection, run the following:

This page provides examples of operations that query for null values using the com.mongodb.client.MongoCollection.find method in the Java Synchronous Driver.

Tip

The driver provides com.mongodb.client.model.Filters helper methods to facilitate the creation of filter documents. The examples on this page use these methods to create the filter documents.

The examples on this page use the inventory collection. To populate the inventory collection, run the following:

This page provides examples of operations that query for null values using the Collection.find() method in the MongoDB Node.js Driver. The examples on this page use the inventory collection. To populate the inventory collection, run the following:

This page provides examples of operations that query for null values using the MongoDB\Collection::find() method in the MongoDB PHP Library. The examples on this page use the inventory collection. To populate the inventory collection, run the following:

This page provides examples of operations that query for null values using the MongoCollection.Find() method in the MongoDB C# Driver. The examples on this page use the inventory collection. To populate the inventory collection, run the following:

This page provides examples of operations that query for null values using the MongoDB::Collection::find() method in the MongoDB Perl Driver. The examples on this page use the inventory collection. To populate the inventory collection, run the following:

This page provides examples of operations that query for null values using the Mongo::Collection#find() method in the MongoDB Ruby Driver. The examples on this page use the inventory collection. To populate the inventory collection, run the following:

This page provides examples of operations that query for null values using the collection.find() method in the MongoDB Scala Driver. The examples on this page use the inventory collection. To populate the inventory collection, run the following:

Important

You must use None with the PyMongo Python driver to query for null or missing fields in MongoDB.

Important

You must use BsonNull.Value with the MongoDB C# driver to query for null or missing fields in MongoDB.

Important

You must use undef with the MongoDB Perl driver to query for null or missing fields in MongoDB.

Important

You must use nil with the MongoDB Ruby driver to query for null or missing fields in MongoDB.

Important

You must use BsonNull() with the MongoDB Scala driver to query for null or missing fields in MongoDB.

db.inventory.insertMany([
   { _id: 1, item: null },
   { _id: 2 }
])

You can run the operation in the web shell below:

db.inventory.insert_many([{"_id": 1, "item": None}, {"_id": 2}])
collection.insertMany(asList(
        Document.parse("{'_id': 1, 'item': null}"),
        Document.parse("{'_id': 2}")
));
db.collection('inventory').insertMany([
  { _id: 1, item: null }, 
  { _id: 2 }
])
.then(function(result) {
  // process result
})
$insertManyResult = $db->inventory->insertMany([
    ['_id' => 1, 'item' => null],
    ['_id' => 2],
]);
var documents = new[]
{
    new BsonDocument { { "_id", 1 }, { "item", BsonNull.Value } },
    new BsonDocument { { "_id", 2 } }
};
collection.InsertMany(documents);
$db->coll("inventory")->insert_many( [ { _id => 1, item => undef }, { _id => 2 } ] );
client[:inventory].insert_many([{ _id: 1, item: nil },
                                { _id: 2 }])
collection.insertMany(Seq(
  Document("""{"_id": 1, "item": null}"""),
  Document("""{"_id": 2}""")
)).execute()

Equality Filter

The { item : null } query matches documents that either contain the item field whose value is null or that do not contain the item field.

The { item : None } query matches documents that either contain the item field whose value is null or that do not contain the item field.

The eq("item", null) query matches documents that either contain the item field whose value is null or that do not contain the item field.

The { item : null } query matches documents that either contain the item field whose value is null or that do not contain the item field.

The [ item => undef ] query matches documents that either contain the item field whose value is null or that do not contain the item field.

The Eq("item", BsonNull.Value) query using the FilterDefinitionBuilder.Eq() method matches documents that either contain the item field whose value is null or that do not contain the item field.

The { item => undef } query matches documents that either contain the item field whose value is null or that do not contain the item field.

The { item => nil } query matches documents that either contain the item field whose value is nil or that do not contain the item field.

The equal("item", BsonNull) query matches documents that either contain the item field whose value is null or that do not contain the item field.

For example, the following query returns both documents:

db.inventory.find( { item: null } )
cursor = db.inventory.find({"item": None})
FindIterable<Document> findIterable = collection.find(eq("item", null));
var cursor = db.collection('inventory').find({ 
  item: null
});
$cursor = $db->inventory->find(['item' => null]);
var filter = Builders<BsonDocument>.Filter.Eq("item", BsonNull.Value);
var result = collection.Find(filter).ToList();
$cursor = $db->coll("inventory")->find( { item => undef } );
client[:inventory].find(item: nil)
var findObservable = collection.find(equal("item", BsonNull()))

Type Check

The { item : { $type: 10 } } query matches documents that contains the item field whose value is null only; i.e. the value of the item field is of BSON Type Null (i.e. 10) :

The { item : { $type: 10 } } query matches documents that contains the item field whose value is null only; i.e. the value of the item field is of BSON Type Null (i.e. 10) :

The type("item", BsonType.NULL) query matches documents that contains the item field whose value is null only; i.e. the value of the item field is of BSON Type Null (i.e. 10) :

The { item : { $type: 10 } } query matches documents that contains the item field whose value is null only; i.e. the value of the item field is of BSON Type Null (i.e. 10) :

The [ item => [ $type => 10 ] ] query matches documents that contains the item field whose value is null only; i.e. the value of the item field is of BSON Type Null (i.e. 10) :

The Type("item", BsonType.Null) query using the FilterDefinitionBuilder.Type() method matches documents that contain the item field whose value is null only; i.e. the value of the item field is of BSON Type Null (i.e. 10) :

The { item => { $type => 10 } } query matches documents that contains the item field whose value is null only; i.e. the value of the item field is of BSON Type Null (i.e. 10) :

The { item => { $type => 10 } } query matches documents that contains the item field whose value is nil only; i.e. the value of the item field is of BSON Type Null (i.e. 10) :

db.inventory.find( { item : { $type: 10 } } )
cursor = db.inventory.find({"item": {"$type": 10}})
findIterable = collection.find(type("item", BsonType.NULL));
var cursor = db.collection('inventory').find({ 
  item: { $type: 10 }
});
$cursor = $db->inventory->find(['item' => ['$type' => 10]]);
var filter = Builders<BsonDocument>.Filter.Type("item", BsonType.Null);
var result = collection.Find(filter).ToList();
$cursor = $db->coll("inventory")->find( { item => { '$type' => 10 } } );
client[:inventory].find(item: { '$type' => 10 })
findObservable = collection.find(bsonType("item", BsonType.NULL))

The query returns only the document where the item field has a null value.

Existence Check

The { item : { $exists: false } } query matches documents that do not contain the item field:

The { item : { $exists: False } } query matches documents that do not contain the item field:

The exists("item", false) query matches documents that do not contain the item field:

The { item : { $exists: false } } query matches documents that do not contain the item field:

The [ item => [ $exists => false ] ] query matches documents that do not contain the item field:

The Exists("item", false) query using the FilterDefinitionBuilder.Exists() method matches documents that do not contain the item field:

The { item => { $exists => false } } query matches documents that do not contain the item field:

The { item => { $exists => false } } query matches documents that do not contain the item field:

The exists("item", exists = false) query matches documents that do not contain the item field:

db.inventory.find( { item : { $exists: false } } )
cursor = db.inventory.find({"item": {"$exists": False}})
findIterable = collection.find(exists("item", false));
var cursor = db.collection('inventory').find({ 
  item: { $exists: false }
});
$cursor = $db->inventory->find(['item' => ['$exists' => false]]);
var filter = Builders<BsonDocument>.Filter.Exists("item", false);
var result = collection.Find(filter).ToList();
# For boolean values, use boolean.pm for 'true' and 'false'
$cursor = $db->coll("inventory")->find( { item => { '$exists' => false } } );
client[:inventory].find(item: { '$exists' => false })
findObservable = collection.find(exists("item", exists = false))

The query returns only the document that does not contain the item field:

See also

The reference documentation for the $type and $exists operators.