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db.collection.findOneAndReplace()

Definition

db.collection.findOneAndReplace(filter, replacement, options)

New in version 3.2.

Replaces a single document based on the specified filter.

Syntax

The findOneAndReplace() method has the following form:

db.collection.findOneAndReplace(
   <filter>,
   <replacement>,
   {
     projection: <document>,
     sort: <document>,
     maxTimeMS: <number>,
     upsert: <boolean>,
     returnNewDocument: <boolean>,
     collation: <document>
   }
)

Parameters and Options

The findOneAndReplace() method takes the following parameters and options:

Parameter Type Description
filter document

The selection criteria for the update. The same query selectors as in the find() method are available.

Specify an empty document { } to replace the first document returned in the collection.

If unspecified, defaults to an empty document.

Starting in MongoDB 3.4.23+, the operation errors if the query argument is not a document.

replacement document

The replacement document.

Cannot contain update operators.

The <replacement> document cannot specify an _id value that differs from the replaced document.

projection document

Optional. A subset of fields to return.

To return all fields in the matching document, omit this parameter.

Starting in MongoDB 3.4.23+, the operation errors if the projection argument is not a document.

sort document

Optional. Specifies a sorting order for the documents matched by the filter.

Starting in MongoDB 3.4.23+, the operation errors if the sort argument is not a document.

See cursor.sort().

maxTimeMS number Optional. Specifies a time limit in milliseconds within which the operation must complete. Throws an error if the limit is exceeded.
upsert boolean

Optional. When true, findOneAndReplace() either:

  • Inserts the document from the replacement parameter if no document matches the filter. Returns null after inserting the new document, unless returnNewDocument is true.
  • Replaces the document that matches the filter with the replacement document.

MongoDB will add the _id field to the replacement document if it is not specified in either the filter or replacement documents. If _id is present in both, the values must be equal.

To avoid multiple upserts, ensure that the query fields are uniquely indexed.

Defaults to false.

returnNewDocument boolean

Optional. When true, returns the replacement document instead of the original document.

Defaults to false.

collation document

Optional.

Specifies the collation to use for the operation.

Collation allows users to specify language-specific rules for string comparison, such as rules for lettercase and accent marks.

The collation option has the following syntax:

collation: {
   locale: <string>,
   caseLevel: <boolean>,
   caseFirst: <string>,
   strength: <int>,
   numericOrdering: <boolean>,
   alternate: <string>,
   maxVariable: <string>,
   backwards: <boolean>
}

When specifying collation, the locale field is mandatory; all other collation fields are optional. For descriptions of the fields, see Collation Document.

If the collation is unspecified but the collection has a default collation (see db.createCollection()), the operation uses the collation specified for the collection.

If no collation is specified for the collection or for the operations, MongoDB uses the simple binary comparison used in prior versions for string comparisons.

You cannot specify multiple collations for an operation. For example, you cannot specify different collations per field, or if performing a find with a sort, you cannot use one collation for the find and another for the sort.

New in version 3.4.

Returns

Returns either the original document or, if returnNewDocument: true, the replacement document.

Behavior

findOneAndReplace() replaces the first matching document in the collection that matches the filter. The sort parameter can be used to influence which document is modified.

The projection parameter takes a document in the following form:

{ field1 : < boolean >, field2 : < boolean> ... }

The <boolean> value can be any of the following:

  • 1 or true to include the field. The method returns the _id field even if it is not explicitly stated in the projection parameter.
  • 0 or false to exclude the field. This can be used on any field, including _id.

Examples

Replace A Document

Create a sample scores collection with the following documents:

db.scores.insertMany([
   { "_id" : 1, "team" : "Fearful Mallards", "score" : 25000 },
   { "_id" : 2, "team" : "Tactful Mooses", "score" : 23500 },
   { "_id" : 3, "team" : "Aquatic Ponies", "score" : 19250 },
   { "_id" : 4, "team" : "Cuddly Zebras", "score" : 15235 },
   { "_id" : 5, "team" : "Garrulous Bears", "score" : 18000 }
]);

The following operation finds a document with score less than 20000 and replaces it:

db.scores.findOneAndReplace(
   { "score" : { $lt : 20000 } },
   { "team" : "Observant Badgers", "score" : 20000 }
)

The operation returns the original document that has been replaced:

{ "_id" : 3, "team" : "Aquatic Ponies", "score" : 19250 }

If returnNewDocument was true, the operation would return the replacement document instead.

Although multiple documents meet the filter criteria, db.collection.findOneAndReplace replaces only one document.

Sort and Replace A Document

Create a sample scores collection with the following documents:

db.scores.insertMany([
   { "_id" : 1, "team" : "Fearful Mallards", "score" : 25000 },
   { "_id" : 2, "team" : "Tactful Mooses", "score" : 23500 },
   { "_id" : 3, "team" : "Aquatic Ponies", "score" : 19250 },
   { "_id" : 4, "team" : "Cuddly Zebras", "score" : 15235 },
   { "_id" : 5, "team" : "Garrulous Bears", "score" : 18000 }
]);

By including an ascending sort on the score field, the following example replaces the document with the lowest score among the documents that match the filter:

db.scores.findOneAndReplace(
   { "score" : { $lt : 20000 } },
   { "team" : "Observant Badgers", "score" : 20000 },
   { sort: { "score" : 1 } }
)

The operation returns the original document that has been replaced:

{ "_id" : 4, "team" : "Cuddly Zebras", "score" : 15235 }

See Replace A Document for the non-sorted result of this command.

Project Specific Fields in Return Document

Create a sample scores collection with the following documents:

db.scores.insertMany([
   { "_id" : 1, "team" : "Fearful Mallards", "score" : 25000 },
   { "_id" : 2, "team" : "Tactful Mooses", "score" : 23500 },
   { "_id" : 3, "team" : "Aquatic Ponies", "score" : 19250 },
   { "_id" : 4, "team" : "Cuddly Zebras", "score" : 15235 },
   { "_id" : 5, "team" : "Garrulous Bears", "score" : 18000 }
])

The following operation uses projection to only display the team field in the returned document:

db.scores.findOneAndReplace(
   { "score" : { $lt : 22250 } },
   { "team" : "Therapeutic Hamsters", "score" : 22250 },
   { sort : { "score" : 1 }, projection: { "_id" : 0, "team" : 1 } }
)

The operation returns the original document with only the team field:

{ "team" : "Cuddly Zebras" }

Replace Document with Time Limit

The following operation sets a 5ms time limit to complete:

try {
   db.scores.findOneAndReplace(
      { "score" : { $gt : 25000 } },
      { "team" : "Emphatic Rhinos", "score" : 25010 },
      { maxTimeMS: 5 }
   );
} catch(e){
   print(e);
}

If the operation exceeds the time limit, it returns:

Error: findAndModifyFailed failed: { "ok" : 0, "errmsg" : "operation exceeded time limit", "code" : 50 }

Replace Document with Upsert

The following operation uses the upsert field to insert the replacement document if no document matches the filter:

try {
   db.scores.findOneAndReplace(
      { "team" : "Fortified Lobsters" },
      { "_id" : 6019, "team" : "Fortified Lobsters" , "score" : 32000},
      { upsert : true, returnNewDocument: true }
   );
} catch (e){
   print(e);
}

The operation returns the following:

{
   "_id" : 6019,
   "team" : "Fortified Lobsters",
   "score" : 32000
}

If returnNewDocument was false, the operation would return null as there is no original document to return.

Specify Collation

New in version 3.4.

Collation allows users to specify language-specific rules for string comparison, such as rules for lettercase and accent marks.

Create a sample myColl collection with the following documents:

db.myColl.insertMany([
   { _id: 1, category: "café", status: "A" },
   { _id: 2, category: "cafe", status: "a" },
   { _id: 3, category: "cafE", status: "a" }
]);

The following operation includes the collation option:

db.myColl.findOneAndReplace(
   { category: "cafe", status: "a" },
   { category: "cafÉ", status: "Replaced" },
   { collation: { locale: "fr", strength: 1 } }
);

The operation returns the following document:

{ "_id" : 1, "category" : "café", "status" : "A" }