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Install MongoDB Community Edition on Ubuntu

Overview

Use this tutorial to install MongoDB 3.6 Community Edition on LTS Ubuntu Linux systems using .deb packages.

Platform Support

Note

  • Support for Ubuntu 12.04 has been removed from MongoDB 3.6+ (and 3.4.15+).

MongoDB only provides packages for the following 64-bit LTS (long-term support) Ubuntu release(s):

  • 14.04 LTS (trusty)
  • 16.04 LTS (xenial)

See Supported Platforms for more information.

Packages

Important

The mongodb package provided by Ubuntu is not maintained by MongoDB Inc. The mongodb-org package is officially maintained and supported by MongoDB Inc. and kept up-to-date with the most recent MongoDB releases. This installation procedure uses the mongodb-org package.

The Ubuntu mongodb package conflicts with the MongoDB Inc. mongodb-org package. Run sudo apt list --installed | grep mongodb to check if the mongodb package is already installed on the system. Use sudo apt remove mongodb and sudo apt purge mongodb to completely remove and purge the mongodb package before attempting this procedure.

MongoDB provides officially supported packages in their own repository. This repository contains the following packages:

Package Name Description
mongodb-org A metapackage that will automatically install the four component packages listed below.
mongodb-org-server Contains the mongod daemon and associated configuration and init scripts.
mongodb-org-mongos Contains the mongos daemon.
mongodb-org-shell Contains the mongo shell.
mongodb-org-tools Contains the following MongoDB tools: mongoimport bsondump, mongodump, mongoexport, mongofiles, mongoperf, mongorestore, mongostat, and mongotop.

The mongodb-org-server package provides an initialization script that starts mongod with the /etc/mongod.conf configuration file.

See Run MongoDB Community Edition for details on using this initialization script.

The default /etc/mongod.conf configuration file supplied by the packages have bind_ip set to 127.0.0.1 by default. Modify this setting as needed for your environment before initializing a replica set.

Install MongoDB Community Edition

Note

To install a different version of MongoDB, please refer to that version’s documentation. To install the previous version, see the tutorial for version 3.4.

MongoDB only provides packages for the following 64-bit LTS (long-term support) Ubuntu release(s):

  • 14.04 LTS (trusty)
  • 16.04 LTS (xenial)

See Supported Platforms for more information.

1

Import the public key used by the package management system.

From a terminal, issue the following command to import the MongoDB public GPG Key from https://www.mongodb.org/static/pgp/server-3.6.asc:

wget -qO - https://www.mongodb.org/static/pgp/server-3.6.asc | sudo apt-key add -

The operation should respond with an OK.

2

Create a list file for MongoDB.

Create the list file /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb-org-3.6.list for your version of Ubuntu. Click on the appropriate tab for your version of Ubuntu. If you are unsure of what Ubuntu version the host is running, open a terminal or shell on the host and execute lsb_release -dc.

The following instruction is for Ubuntu 16.04 (Xenial). For Ubuntu 14.04 (Trusty), click on the appropriate tab.

Create the /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb-org-3.6.list file for Ubuntu 16.04 (Xenial):

echo "deb [ arch=amd64,arm64 ] https://repo.mongodb.org/apt/ubuntu xenial/mongodb-org/3.6 multiverse" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb-org-3.6.list

The following instruction is for Ubuntu 14.04 (Trusty). For Ubuntu 16.04 (Xenial), click on the appropriate tab.

Create the /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb-org-3.6.list file for Ubuntu 14.04 (Trusty):

echo "deb [ arch=amd64 ] https://repo.mongodb.org/apt/ubuntu trusty/mongodb-org/3.6 multiverse" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb-org-3.6.list
3

Reload local package database.

Issue the following command to reload the local package database:

sudo apt-get update
4

Install the MongoDB packages.

Install the latest stable version of MongoDB.

Issue the following command:

sudo apt-get install -y mongodb-org

Install a specific release of MongoDB.

To install a specific release, you must specify each component package individually along with the version number, as in the following example:

sudo apt-get install -y mongodb-org=3.6.15 mongodb-org-server=3.6.15 mongodb-org-shell=3.6.15 mongodb-org-mongos=3.6.15 mongodb-org-tools=3.6.15

If you only install mongodb-org=3.6.15 and do not include the component packages, the latest version of each MongoDB package will be installed regardless of what version you specified.

Pin a specific version of MongoDB.

Although you can specify any available version of MongoDB, apt-get will upgrade the packages when a newer version becomes available. To prevent unintended upgrades, pin the package. To pin the version of MongoDB at the currently installed version, issue the following command sequence:

echo "mongodb-org hold" | sudo dpkg --set-selections
echo "mongodb-org-server hold" | sudo dpkg --set-selections
echo "mongodb-org-shell hold" | sudo dpkg --set-selections
echo "mongodb-org-mongos hold" | sudo dpkg --set-selections
echo "mongodb-org-tools hold" | sudo dpkg --set-selections

For help with troubleshooting errors encountered while installing MongoDB on Ubuntu, see our troubleshooting guide.

Run MongoDB Community Edition

Most Unix-like operating systems limit the system resources that a session may use. These limits may negatively impact MongoDB operation. See UNIX ulimit Settings for more information.

Directories

If you installed via the package manager, the data directory /var/lib/mongodb and the log directory /var/log/mongodb are created during the installation.

By default, MongoDB runs using the mongodb user account. If you change the user that runs the MongoDB process, you must also modify the permission to the data and log directories to give this user access to these directories.

Configuration File
The official MongoDB package includes a configuration file (/etc/mongod.conf). These settings (such as the data directory and log directory specifications) take effect upon startup. That is, if you change the configuration file while the MongoDB instance is running, you must restart the instance for the changes to take effect.

Important

The following instructions assume that you have downloaded the official MongoDB mongodb-org packages, and not the unofficial mongodb package provided by Ubuntu.

1

Start MongoDB.

Issue the following command to start mongod:

sudo service mongod start
2

Verify that MongoDB has started successfully

Verify that the mongod process has started successfully by checking the contents of the log file at /var/log/mongodb/mongod.log for a line reading

[initandlisten] waiting for connections on port 27017

<port> is the port the mongod listens on. If you modified the net.port setting in the /etc/mongod.conf configuration file, the port may differ.

If you modified the systemLog.path configuration file option, look for the log file at the location you specified to that setting.

You may see non-critical warnings in the mongod output. As long as you see the log line shown above, you can safely ignore these warnings during your initial evaluation of MongoDB.

3

Stop MongoDB.

As needed, you can stop the mongod process by issuing the following command:

sudo service mongod stop
4

Restart MongoDB.

Issue the following command to restart mongod:

sudo service mongod restart
5

Begin using MongoDB.

Start a mongo shell on the same host machine as the mongod. Use the --host command line option to specify the localhost address and port that the mongod listens on:

mongo --host 127.0.0.1:27017

Later, to stop MongoDB, press Control+C in the terminal where the mongod instance is running.

Uninstall MongoDB Community Edition

To completely remove MongoDB from a system, you must remove the MongoDB applications themselves, the configuration files, and any directories containing data and logs. The following section guides you through the necessary steps.

Warning

This process will completely remove MongoDB, its configuration, and all databases. This process is not reversible, so ensure that all of your configuration and data is backed up before proceeding.

1

Stop MongoDB.

Stop the mongod process by issuing the following command:

sudo service mongod stop
2

Remove Packages.

Remove any MongoDB packages that you had previously installed.

sudo apt-get purge mongodb-org*
3

Remove Data Directories.

Remove MongoDB databases and log files.

sudo rm -r /var/log/mongodb
sudo rm -r /var/lib/mongodb