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Rotate Encryption Keys

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  • Rotate a Replica Set Member
  • KMIP Master Key Rotation

Most regulatory requirements mandate that a managed key used to decrypt sensitive data must be rotated out and replaced with a new key once a year.

Note

MongoDB provides two options for key rotation. You can rotate out the binary with a new instance that uses a new key. Or, if you are using a KMIP server for key management, you can rotate the master key.

Note

To prevent changing the write quorum, never rotate more than one replica set member at a time.

For a replica set, to rotate out a member:

  1. Start a new mongod instance, configured to use a new key. Include the --replSet option with the name of the replica set as well as any other options specific to your configuration, such as --dbpath and --bind_ip.

    mongod --replSet myReplSet --enableEncryption \
    --kmipServerName <KMIP Server HostName> \
    --kmipServerCAFile ca.pem --kmipClientCertificateFile client.pem
  2. Connect mongosh to the replica set's primary.
  3. Add the instance to the replica set:

    rs.add( { host: <host:port> } )
    Warning

    Before MongoDB 5.0, a newly added secondary still counts as a voting member even though it can neither serve reads nor become primary until its data is consistent. If you are running a MongoDB version earlier than 5.0 and add a secondary with its votes and priority settings greater than zero, this can lead to a case where a majority of the voting members are online but no primary can be elected. To avoid such situations, consider adding the new secondary initially with priority :0 and votes :0. Then, run rs.status() to ensure the member has transitioned into SECONDARY state. Finally, use rs.reconfig() to update its priority and votes.

    During the initial sync process, the re-encryption of the data with an entirely new set of database keys as well as a new system key occurs.

  4. Remove the old node from the replica set and delete all its data. For instructions, see Remove Members from Replica Set

If you are using a KMIP server for key management, you can rotate the master key, the only externally managed key. With the new master key, the internal keystore will be re-encrypted but the database keys will be otherwise left unchanged. This obviates the need to re-encrypt the entire data set.

  1. Rotate the master key for the secondary members of the replica set one at a time.

    1. Restart the secondary, including the --kmipRotateMasterKey option. Include any other options specific to your configuration, such as --bind_ip. If the member already includes the --kmipKeyIdentifier option, either update the --kmipKeyIdentifier option with the new key to use or omit to request a new key from the KMIP server:

      mongod --enableEncryption --kmipRotateMasterKey \
      --kmipServerName <KMIP Server HostName> \
      --kmipServerCAFile ca.pem --kmipClientCertificateFile client.pem

      If using a configuration file, include the security.kmip.rotateMasterKey.

    2. Upon successful completion of the master key rotation and re-encryption of the database keystore, the mongod will exit.
    3. Restart the secondary without the --kmipRotateMasterKey parameter. Include any other options specific to your configuration, such as --bind_ip.

      mongod --enableEncryption --kmipServerName <KMIP Server HostName> \
      --kmipServerCAFile ca.pem --kmipClientCertificateFile client.pem

      If using a configuration file, remove the security.kmip.rotateMasterKey setting.

  2. Step down the replica set primary.

    Connect mongosh to the primary and use rs.stepDown() to step down the primary and force an election of a new primary:

    rs.stepDown()
  3. When rs.status() shows that the primary has stepped down and another member has assumed PRIMARY state, rotate the master key for the stepped down member:

    1. Restart the stepped-down member, including the --kmipRotateMasterKey option. Include any other options specific to your configuration, such as --bind_ip. If the member already includes the --kmipKeyIdentifier option, either update the --kmipKeyIdentifier option with the new key to use or omit.

      mongod --enableEncryption --kmipRotateMasterKey \
      --kmipServerName <KMIP Server HostName> \
      --kmipServerCAFile ca.pem --kmipClientCertificateFile client.pem

      If using a configuration file, include the security.kmip.rotateMasterKey.

    2. Upon successful completion of the master key rotation and re-encryption of the database keystore, the mongod will exit.
    3. Restart the stepped-down member without the --kmipRotateMasterKey option. Include any other options specific to your configuration, such as --bind_ip.

      mongod --enableEncryption --kmipServerName <KMIP Server HostName> \
      --kmipServerCAFile ca.pem --kmipClientCertificateFile client.pem

      If using a configuration file, remove the security.kmip.rotateMasterKey setting.

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