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Map-Reduce Examples

In the mongo shell, the db.collection.mapReduce() method is a wrapper around the mapReduce command. The following examples use the db.collection.mapReduce() method:

Aggregation Pipeline as Alternative

Aggregation pipeline provides better performance and a simpler interface than map-reduce, and map-reduce expressions can be rewritten using aggregation pipeline operators such as $group, $merge, and others.

For map-reduce expressions that require custom functionality, MongoDB provides the $accumulator and $function aggregation operators starting in version 4.4. These operators provide the ability to define custom aggregation expressions in JavaScript.

The examples in this section include aggregation pipeline alternatives without custom aggregation expressions. For alternatives that use custom expressions, see Map-Reduce to Aggregation Pipeline Translation Examples.

Create a sample collection orders with these documents:

db.orders.insertMany([
   { _id: 1, cust_id: "Ant O. Knee", ord_date: new Date("2020-03-01"), price: 25, items: [ { sku: "oranges", qty: 5, price: 2.5 }, { sku: "apples", qty: 5, price: 2.5 } ], status: "A" },
   { _id: 2, cust_id: "Ant O. Knee", ord_date: new Date("2020-03-08"), price: 70, items: [ { sku: "oranges", qty: 8, price: 2.5 }, { sku: "chocolates", qty: 5, price: 10 } ], status: "A" },
   { _id: 3, cust_id: "Busby Bee", ord_date: new Date("2020-03-08"), price: 50, items: [ { sku: "oranges", qty: 10, price: 2.5 }, { sku: "pears", qty: 10, price: 2.5 } ], status: "A" },
   { _id: 4, cust_id: "Busby Bee", ord_date: new Date("2020-03-18"), price: 25, items: [ { sku: "oranges", qty: 10, price: 2.5 } ], status: "A" },
   { _id: 5, cust_id: "Busby Bee", ord_date: new Date("2020-03-19"), price: 50, items: [ { sku: "chocolates", qty: 5, price: 10 } ], status: "A"},
   { _id: 6, cust_id: "Cam Elot", ord_date: new Date("2020-03-19"), price: 35, items: [ { sku: "carrots", qty: 10, price: 1.0 }, { sku: "apples", qty: 10, price: 2.5 } ], status: "A" },
   { _id: 7, cust_id: "Cam Elot", ord_date: new Date("2020-03-20"), price: 25, items: [ { sku: "oranges", qty: 10, price: 2.5 } ], status: "A" },
   { _id: 8, cust_id: "Don Quis", ord_date: new Date("2020-03-20"), price: 75, items: [ { sku: "chocolates", qty: 5, price: 10 }, { sku: "apples", qty: 10, price: 2.5 } ], status: "A" },
   { _id: 9, cust_id: "Don Quis", ord_date: new Date("2020-03-20"), price: 55, items: [ { sku: "carrots", qty: 5, price: 1.0 }, { sku: "apples", qty: 10, price: 2.5 }, { sku: "oranges", qty: 10, price: 2.5 } ], status: "A" },
   { _id: 10, cust_id: "Don Quis", ord_date: new Date("2020-03-23"), price: 25, items: [ { sku: "oranges", qty: 10, price: 2.5 } ], status: "A" }
])

Return the Total Price Per Customer

Perform the map-reduce operation on the orders collection to group by the cust_id, and calculate the sum of the price for each cust_id:

  1. Define the map function to process each input document:

    • In the function, this refers to the document that the map-reduce operation is processing.
    • The function maps the price to the cust_id for each document and emits the cust_id and price.
    var mapFunction1 = function() {
       emit(this.cust_id, this.price);
    };
    
  2. Define the corresponding reduce function with two arguments keyCustId and valuesPrices:

    • The valuesPrices is an array whose elements are the price values emitted by the map function and grouped by keyCustId.
    • The function reduces the valuesPrice array to the sum of its elements.
    var reduceFunction1 = function(keyCustId, valuesPrices) {
       return Array.sum(valuesPrices);
    };
    
  3. Perform map-reduce on all documents in the orders collection using the mapFunction1 map function and the reduceFunction1 reduce function:

    db.orders.mapReduce(
       mapFunction1,
       reduceFunction1,
       { out: "map_reduce_example" }
    )
    

    This operation outputs the results to a collection named map_reduce_example. If the map_reduce_example collection already exists, the operation will replace the contents with the results of this map-reduce operation.

  4. Query the map_reduce_example collection to verify the results:

    db.map_reduce_example.find().sort( { _id: 1 } )
    

    The operation returns these documents:

    { "_id" : "Ant O. Knee", "value" : 95 }
    { "_id" : "Busby Bee", "value" : 125 }
    { "_id" : "Cam Elot", "value" : 60 }
    { "_id" : "Don Quis", "value" : 155 }
    

Aggregation Alternative

Using the available aggregation pipeline operators, you can rewrite the map-reduce operation without defining custom functions:

db.orders.aggregate([
   { $group: { _id: "$cust_id", value: { $sum: "$price" } } },
   { $out: "agg_alternative_1" }
])
  1. The $group stage groups by the cust_id and calculates the value field using $sum. The value field contains the total price for each cust_id.

    This stage outputs these documents to the next stage:

    { "_id" : "Don Quis", "value" : 155 }
    { "_id" : "Ant O. Knee", "value" : 95 }
    { "_id" : "Cam Elot", "value" : 60 }
    { "_id" : "Busby Bee", "value" : 125 }
    
  2. Then, the $out writes the output to the collection agg_alternative_1. Alternatively, you could use $merge instead of $out.

  3. Query the agg_alternative_1 collection to verify the results:

    db.agg_alternative_1.find().sort( { _id: 1 } )
    

    The operation returns these documents:

    { "_id" : "Ant O. Knee", "value" : 95 }
    { "_id" : "Busby Bee", "value" : 125 }
    { "_id" : "Cam Elot", "value" : 60 }
    { "_id" : "Don Quis", "value" : 155 }
    

See also

For an alternative that uses custom aggregation expressions, see Map-Reduce to Aggregation Pipeline Translation Examples.

Calculate Order and Total Quantity with Average Quantity Per Item

In the following example, you will see a map-reduce operation on the orders collection for all documents that have an ord_date value greater than or equal to 2020-03-01.

The operation in the example:

  1. Groups by the item.sku field, and calculates the number of orders and the total quantity ordered for each sku.
  2. Calculates the average quantity per order for each sku value and merges the results into the output collection.

When merging results, if an existing document has the same key as the new result, the operation overwrites the existing document. If there is no existing document with the same key, the operation inserts the document.

Example steps:

  1. Define the map function to process each input document:

    • In the function, this refers to the document that the map-reduce operation is processing.
    • For each item, the function associates the sku with a new object value that contains the count of 1 and the item qty for the order and emits the sku (stored in the key) and the value.
     var mapFunction2 = function() {
        for (var idx = 0; idx < this.items.length; idx++) {
           var key = this.items[idx].sku;
           var value = { count: 1, qty: this.items[idx].qty };
    
           emit(key, value);
        }
    };
    
  2. Define the corresponding reduce function with two arguments keySKU and countObjVals:

    • countObjVals is an array whose elements are the objects mapped to the grouped keySKU values passed by map function to the reducer function.
    • The function reduces the countObjVals array to a single object reducedValue that contains the count and the qty fields.
    • In reducedVal, the count field contains the sum of the count fields from the individual array elements, and the qty field contains the sum of the qty fields from the individual array elements.
    var reduceFunction2 = function(keySKU, countObjVals) {
       reducedVal = { count: 0, qty: 0 };
    
       for (var idx = 0; idx < countObjVals.length; idx++) {
           reducedVal.count += countObjVals[idx].count;
           reducedVal.qty += countObjVals[idx].qty;
       }
    
       return reducedVal;
    };
    
  3. Define a finalize function with two arguments key and reducedVal. The function modifies the reducedVal object to add a computed field named avg and returns the modified object:

    var finalizeFunction2 = function (key, reducedVal) {
      reducedVal.avg = reducedVal.qty/reducedVal.count;
      return reducedVal;
    };
    
  4. Perform the map-reduce operation on the orders collection using the mapFunction2, reduceFunction2, and finalizeFunction2 functions:

    db.orders.mapReduce(
       mapFunction2,
       reduceFunction2,
       {
         out: { merge: "map_reduce_example2" },
         query: { ord_date: { $gte: new Date("2020-03-01") } },
         finalize: finalizeFunction2
       }
     );
    

    This operation uses the query field to select only those documents with ord_date greater than or equal to new Date("2020-03-01"). Then it outputs the results to a collection map_reduce_example2.

    If the map_reduce_example2 collection already exists, the operation will merge the existing contents with the results of this map-reduce operation. That is, if an existing document has the same key as the new result, the operation overwrites the existing document. If there is no existing document with the same key, the operation inserts the document.

  5. Query the map_reduce_example2 collection to verify the results:

    db.map_reduce_example2.find().sort( { _id: 1 } )
    

    The operation returns these documents:

    { "_id" : "apples", "value" : { "count" : 4, "qty" : 35, "avg" : 8.75 } }
    { "_id" : "carrots", "value" : { "count" : 2, "qty" : 15, "avg" : 7.5 } }
    { "_id" : "chocolates", "value" : { "count" : 3, "qty" : 15, "avg" : 5 } }
    { "_id" : "oranges", "value" : { "count" : 7, "qty" : 63, "avg" : 9 } }
    { "_id" : "pears", "value" : { "count" : 1, "qty" : 10, "avg" : 10 } }
    

Aggregation Alternative

Using the available aggregation pipeline operators, you can rewrite the map-reduce operation without defining custom functions:

db.orders.aggregate( [
   { $match: { ord_date: { $gte: new Date("2020-03-01") } } },
   { $unwind: "$items" },
   { $group: { _id: "$items.sku", qty: { $sum: "$items.qty" }, orders_ids: { $addToSet: "$_id" } }  },
   { $project: { value: { count: { $size: "$orders_ids" }, qty: "$qty", avg: { $divide: [ "$qty", { $size: "$orders_ids" } ] } } } },
   { $merge: { into: "agg_alternative_3", on: "_id", whenMatched: "replace",  whenNotMatched: "insert" } }
] )
  1. The $match stage selects only those documents with ord_date greater than or equal to new Date("2020-03-01").

  2. The $unwinds stage breaks down the document by the items array field to output a document for each array element. For example:

    { "_id" : 1, "cust_id" : "Ant O. Knee", "ord_date" : ISODate("2020-03-01T00:00:00Z"), "price" : 25, "items" : { "sku" : "oranges", "qty" : 5, "price" : 2.5 }, "status" : "A" }
    { "_id" : 1, "cust_id" : "Ant O. Knee", "ord_date" : ISODate("2020-03-01T00:00:00Z"), "price" : 25, "items" : { "sku" : "apples", "qty" : 5, "price" : 2.5 }, "status" : "A" }
    { "_id" : 2, "cust_id" : "Ant O. Knee", "ord_date" : ISODate("2020-03-08T00:00:00Z"), "price" : 70, "items" : { "sku" : "oranges", "qty" : 8, "price" : 2.5 }, "status" : "A" }
    { "_id" : 2, "cust_id" : "Ant O. Knee", "ord_date" : ISODate("2020-03-08T00:00:00Z"), "price" : 70, "items" : { "sku" : "chocolates", "qty" : 5, "price" : 10 }, "status" : "A" }
    { "_id" : 3, "cust_id" : "Busby Bee", "ord_date" : ISODate("2020-03-08T00:00:00Z"), "price" : 50, "items" : { "sku" : "oranges", "qty" : 10, "price" : 2.5 }, "status" : "A" }
    { "_id" : 3, "cust_id" : "Busby Bee", "ord_date" : ISODate("2020-03-08T00:00:00Z"), "price" : 50, "items" : { "sku" : "pears", "qty" : 10, "price" : 2.5 }, "status" : "A" }
    { "_id" : 4, "cust_id" : "Busby Bee", "ord_date" : ISODate("2020-03-18T00:00:00Z"), "price" : 25, "items" : { "sku" : "oranges", "qty" : 10, "price" : 2.5 }, "status" : "A" }
    { "_id" : 5, "cust_id" : "Busby Bee", "ord_date" : ISODate("2020-03-19T00:00:00Z"), "price" : 50, "items" : { "sku" : "chocolates", "qty" : 5, "price" : 10 }, "status" : "A" }
    ...
    
  3. The $group stage groups by the items.sku, calculating for each sku:

    • The qty field. The qty field contains the total qty ordered per each items.sku using $sum.
    • The orders_ids array. The orders_ids field contains an array of distinct order _id’s for the items.sku using $addToSet.
    { "_id" : "chocolates", "qty" : 15, "orders_ids" : [ 2, 5, 8 ] }
    { "_id" : "oranges", "qty" : 63, "orders_ids" : [ 4, 7, 3, 2, 9, 1, 10 ] }
    { "_id" : "carrots", "qty" : 15, "orders_ids" : [ 6, 9 ] }
    { "_id" : "apples", "qty" : 35, "orders_ids" : [ 9, 8, 1, 6 ] }
    { "_id" : "pears", "qty" : 10, "orders_ids" : [ 3 ] }
    
  4. The $project stage reshapes the output document to mirror the map-reduce’s output to have two fields _id and value. The $project sets:

    • the value.count to the size of the orders_ids array using $size.
    • the value.qty to the qty field of input document.
    • the value.avg to the average number of qty per order using $divide and $size.
    { "_id" : "apples", "value" : { "count" : 4, "qty" : 35, "avg" : 8.75 } }
    { "_id" : "pears", "value" : { "count" : 1, "qty" : 10, "avg" : 10 } }
    { "_id" : "chocolates", "value" : { "count" : 3, "qty" : 15, "avg" : 5 } }
    { "_id" : "oranges", "value" : { "count" : 7, "qty" : 63, "avg" : 9 } }
    { "_id" : "carrots", "value" : { "count" : 2, "qty" : 15, "avg" : 7.5 } }
    
  5. Finally, the $merge writes the output to the collection agg_alternative_3. If an existing document has the same key _id as the new result, the operation overwrites the existing document. If there is no existing document with the same key, the operation inserts the document.

  6. Query the agg_alternative_3 collection to verify the results:

    db.agg_alternative_3.find().sort( { _id: 1 } )
    

    The operation returns these documents:

    { "_id" : "apples", "value" : { "count" : 4, "qty" : 35, "avg" : 8.75 } }
    { "_id" : "carrots", "value" : { "count" : 2, "qty" : 15, "avg" : 7.5 } }
    { "_id" : "chocolates", "value" : { "count" : 3, "qty" : 15, "avg" : 5 } }
    { "_id" : "oranges", "value" : { "count" : 7, "qty" : 63, "avg" : 9 } }
    { "_id" : "pears", "value" : { "count" : 1, "qty" : 10, "avg" : 10 } }
    

See also

For an alternative that uses custom aggregation expressions, see Map-Reduce to Aggregation Pipeline Translation Examples.