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$text

$text performs a text search on the content of the fields indexed with a text index. A $text expression has the following syntax:

Changed in version 3.2.

{
$text:
{
$search: <string>,
$language: <string>,
$caseSensitive: <boolean>,
$diacriticSensitive: <boolean>
}
}

The $text operator accepts a text query document with the following fields:

Field
Type
Description
$search
string
A string of terms that MongoDB parses and uses to query the text index. MongoDB performs a logical OR search of the terms unless specified as a phrase. See Behavior for more information on the field.
$language
string

Optional. The language that determines the list of stop words for the search and the rules for the stemmer and tokenizer. If not specified, the search uses the default language of the index. For supported languages, see Text Search Languages.

If you specify a language value of "none", then the text search uses simple tokenization with no list of stop words and no stemming.

$caseSensitive
boolean

Optional. A boolean flag to enable or disable case sensitive search. Defaults to false; i.e. the search defers to the case insensitivity of the text index.

For more information, see Case Insensitivity.

New in version 3.2.

$diacriticSensitive
boolean

Optional. A boolean flag to enable or disable diacritic sensitive search against version 3 text indexes. Defaults to false; i.e. the search defers to the diacritic insensitivity of the text index.

Text searches against earlier versions of the text index are inherently diacritic sensitive and cannot be diacritic insensitive. As such, the $diacriticSensitive option has no effect with earlier versions of the text index.

For more information, see Diacritic Insensitivity.

New in version 3.2.

The $text operator, by default, does not return results sorted in terms of the results' scores. For more information on sorting by the text search scores, see the Text Score documentation.

  • A query can specify, at most, one $text expression.
  • The $text query can not appear in $nor expressions.
  • The $text query can not appear in $elemMatch query expressions or $elemMatch projection expressions.
  • To use a $text query in an $or expression, all clauses in the $or array must be indexed.
  • You cannot use hint() if the query includes a $text query expression.
  • You cannot specify $natural sort order if the query includes a $text expression.

  • You cannot combine the $text expression, which requires a special text index, with a query operator that requires a different type of special index. For example you cannot combine $text expression with the $near operator.
  • Views do not support text search.

If using the $text operator in aggregation, the following restrictions also apply.

  • The $match stage that includes a $text must be the first stage in the pipeline.
  • A $text operator can only occur once in the stage.
  • The $text operator expression cannot appear in $or or $not expressions.
  • The text search, by default, does not return the matching documents in order of matching scores. To sort by descending score, use the $meta aggregation expression in the $sort stage.

In the $search field, specify a string of words that the $text operator parses and uses to query the text index.

The $text operator treats most punctuation in the string as delimiters, except a hyphen-minus (-) that negates term or an escaped double quotes \" that specifies a phrase.

Note

The $search field for the $text expression is different than the the $search aggregation stage provided by Atlas Search. The $search aggregation stage performs full-text search on specified fields and is only available on MongoDB Atlas.

To match on a phrase, as opposed to individual terms, enclose the phrase in escaped double quotes (\"), as in:

"\"ssl certificate\""

If the $search string includes a phrase and individual terms, text search will only match the documents that include the phrase.

For example, passed a $search string:

"\"ssl certificate\" authority key"

The $text operator searches for the phrase "ssl certificate".

Prefixing a word with a hyphen-minus (-) negates a word:

  • The negated word excludes documents that contain the negated word from the result set.
  • When passed a search string that only contains negated words, text search will not match any documents.
  • A hyphenated word, such as pre-market, is not a negation. If used in a hyphenated word, $text operator treats the hyphen-minus (-) as a delimiter. To negate the word market in this instance, include a space between pre and -market, i.e., pre -market.

The $text operator adds all negations to the query with the logical AND operator.

The $text operator ignores language-specific stop words, such as the and and in English.

For case insensitive and diacritic insensitive text searches, the $text operator matches on the complete stemmed word. So if a document field contains the word blueberry, a search on the term blue will not match. However, blueberry or blueberries will match.

For case sensitive search (i.e. $caseSensitive: true), if the suffix stem contains uppercase letters, the $text operator matches on the exact word.

For diacritic sensitive search (i.e. $diacriticSensitive: true), if the suffix stem contains the diacritic mark or marks, the $text operator matches on the exact word.

Changed in version 3.2.

The $text operator defaults to the case insensitivity of the text index:

  • The version 3 text index is case insensitive for Latin characters with or without diacritics and characters from non-Latin alphabets, such as the Cyrillic alphabet. See text index for details.
  • Earlier versions of the text index are case insensitive for Latin characters without diacritic marks; i.e. for [A-z].

To support case sensitive search where the text index is case insensitive, specify $caseSensitive: true.

When performing a case sensitive search ($caseSensitive: true) where the text index is case insensitive, the $text operator:

  • First searches the text index for case insensitive and diacritic matches.
  • Then, to return just the documents that match the case of the search terms, the $text query operation includes an additional stage to filter out the documents that do not match the specified case.

For case sensitive search (i.e. $caseSensitive: true), if the suffix stem contains uppercase letters, the $text operator matches on the exact word.

Specifying $caseSensitive: true may impact performance.

Tip
See also:

Changed in version 3.2.

The $text operator defaults to the diacritic insensitivity of the text index:

  • The version 3 text index is diacritic insensitive. That is, the index does not distinguish between characters that contain diacritical marks and their non-marked counterpart, such as é, ê, and e.
  • Earlier versions of the text index are diacritic sensitive.

To support diacritic sensitive text search against the version 3 text index, specify $diacriticSensitive: true.

Text searches against earlier versions of the text index are inherently diacritic sensitive and cannot be diacritic insensitive. As such, the $diacriticSensitive option for the $text operator has no effect with earlier versions of the text index.

To perform a diacritic sensitive text search ($diacriticSensitive: true) against a version 3 text index, the $text operator:

  • First searches the text index, which is diacritic insensitive.
  • Then, to return just the documents that match the diacritic marked characters of the search terms, the $text query operation includes an additional stage to filter out the documents that do not match.

Specifying $diacriticSensitive: true may impact performance.

To perform a diacritic sensitive search against an earlier version of the text index, the $text operator searches the text index which is diacritic sensitive.

For diacritic sensitive search, if the suffix stem contains the diacritic mark or marks, the $text operator matches on the exact word.

Tip
See also:

The $text operator assigns a score to each document that contains the search term in the indexed fields. The score represents the relevance of a document to a given text search query. The score can be part of a sort() method specification as well as part of the projection expression. The { $meta: "textScore" } expression provides information on the processing of the $text operation. See $meta projection operator for details on accessing the score for projection or sort.

The following examples assume a collection articles that has a version 3 text index on the field subject:

db.articles.createIndex( { subject: "text" } )

Populate the collection with the following documents:

db.articles.insert(
[
{ _id: 1, subject: "coffee", author: "xyz", views: 50 },
{ _id: 2, subject: "Coffee Shopping", author: "efg", views: 5 },
{ _id: 3, subject: "Baking a cake", author: "abc", views: 90 },
{ _id: 4, subject: "baking", author: "xyz", views: 100 },
{ _id: 5, subject: "Café Con Leche", author: "abc", views: 200 },
{ _id: 6, subject: "Сырники", author: "jkl", views: 80 },
{ _id: 7, subject: "coffee and cream", author: "efg", views: 10 },
{ _id: 8, subject: "Cafe con Leche", author: "xyz", views: 10 }
]
)

The following query specifies a $search string of coffee:

db.articles.find( { $text: { $search: "coffee" } } )

This query returns the documents that contain the term coffee in the indexed subject field, or more precisely, the stemmed version of the word:

{ "_id" : 2, "subject" : "Coffee Shopping", "author" : "efg", "views" : 5 }
{ "_id" : 7, "subject" : "coffee and cream", "author" : "efg", "views" : 10 }
{ "_id" : 1, "subject" : "coffee", "author" : "xyz", "views" : 50 }

If the search string is a space-delimited string, $text operator performs a logical OR search on each term and returns documents that contains any of the terms.

The following query specifies a $search string of three terms delimited by space, "bake coffee cake":

db.articles.find( { $text: { $search: "bake coffee cake" } } )

This query returns documents that contain either bake or coffee or cake in the indexed subject field, or more precisely, the stemmed version of these words:

{ "_id" : 2, "subject" : "Coffee Shopping", "author" : "efg", "views" : 5 }
{ "_id" : 7, "subject" : "coffee and cream", "author" : "efg", "views" : 10 }
{ "_id" : 1, "subject" : "coffee", "author" : "xyz", "views" : 50 }
{ "_id" : 3, "subject" : "Baking a cake", "author" : "abc", "views" : 90 }
{ "_id" : 4, "subject" : "baking", "author" : "xyz", "views" : 100 }

To match the exact phrase as a single term, escape the quotes.

The following query searches for the phrase coffee shop:

db.articles.find( { $text: { $search: "\"coffee shop\"" } } )

This query returns documents that contain the phrase coffee shop:

{ "_id" : 2, "subject" : "Coffee Shopping", "author" : "efg", "views" : 5 }
Tip
See also:

A negated term is a term that is prefixed by a minus sign -. If you negate a term, the $text operator will exclude the documents that contain those terms from the results.

The following example searches for documents that contain the words coffee but do not contain the term shop, or more precisely the stemmed version of the words:

db.articles.find( { $text: { $search: "coffee -shop" } } )

The query returns the following documents:

{ "_id" : 7, "subject" : "coffee and cream", "author" : "efg", "views" : 10 }
{ "_id" : 1, "subject" : "coffee", "author" : "xyz", "views" : 50 }

Use the optional $language field in the $text expression to specify a language that determines the list of stop words and the rules for the stemmer and tokenizer for the search string.

If you specify a language value of "none", then the text search uses simple tokenization with no list of stop words and no stemming.

The following query specifies es, i.e. Spanish, as the language that determines the tokenization, stemming, and stop words:

db.articles.find(
{ $text: { $search: "leche", $language: "es" } }
)

The query returns the following documents:

{ "_id" : 5, "subject" : "Café Con Leche", "author" : "abc", "views" : 200 }
{ "_id" : 8, "subject" : "Cafe con Leche", "author" : "xyz", "views" : 10 }

The $text expression can also accept the language by name, spanish. See Text Search Languages for the supported languages.

Tip

Changed in version 3.2.

The $text operator defers to the case and diacritic insensitivity of the text index. The version 3 text index is diacritic insensitive and expands its case insensitivity to include the Cyrillic alphabet as well as characters with diacritics. For details, see text Index Case Insensitivity and text Index Diacritic Insensitivity.

The following query performs a case and diacritic insensitive text search for the terms сы́рники or CAFÉS:

db.articles.find( { $text: { $search: "сы́рники CAFÉS" } } )

Using the version 3 text index, the query matches the following documents.

{ "_id" : 6, "subject" : "Сырники", "author" : "jkl", "views" : 80 }
{ "_id" : 5, "subject" : "Café Con Leche", "author" : "abc", "views" : 200 }
{ "_id" : 8, "subject" : "Cafe con Leche", "author" : "xyz", "views" : 10 }

With the previous versions of the text index, the query would not match any document.

Changed in version 3.2.

To enable case sensitive search, specify $caseSensitive: true. Specifying $caseSensitive: true may impact performance.

The following query performs a case sensitive search for the term Coffee:

db.articles.find( { $text: { $search: "Coffee", $caseSensitive: true } } )

The search matches just the document:

{ "_id" : 2, "subject" : "Coffee Shopping", "author" : "efg", "views" : 5 }

The following query performs a case sensitive search for the phrase Café Con Leche:

db.articles.find( {
$text: { $search: "\"Café Con Leche\"", $caseSensitive: true }
} )

The search matches just the document:

{ "_id" : 5, "subject" : "Café Con Leche", "author" : "abc", "views" : 200 }

A negated term is a term that is prefixed by a minus sign -. If you negate a term, the $text operator will exclude the documents that contain those terms from the results. You can also specify case sensitivity for negated terms.

The following example performs a case sensitive search for documents that contain the word Coffee but do not contain the lower-case term shop, or more precisely the stemmed version of the words:

db.articles.find( { $text: { $search: "Coffee -shop", $caseSensitive: true } } )

The query matches the following document:

{ "_id" : 2, "subject" : "Coffee Shopping", "author" : "efg" }

Changed in version 3.2.

To enable diacritic sensitive search against a version 3 text index, specify $diacriticSensitive: true. Specifying $diacriticSensitive: true may impact performance.

The following query performs a diacritic sensitive text search on the term CAFÉ, or more precisely the stemmed version of the word:

db.articles.find( { $text: { $search: "CAFÉ", $diacriticSensitive: true } } )

The query only matches the following document:

{ "_id" : 5, "subject" : "Café Con Leche", "author" : "abc" }

The $diacriticSensitive option applies also to negated terms. A negated term is a term that is prefixed by a minus sign -. If you negate a term, the $text operator will exclude the documents that contain those terms from the results.

The following query performs a diacritic sensitive text search for document that contains the term leches but not the term cafés, or more precisely the stemmed version of the words:

db.articles.find(
{ $text: { $search: "leches -cafés", $diacriticSensitive: true } }
)

The query matches the following document:

{ "_id" : 8, "subject" : "Cafe con Leche", "author" : "xyz" }

The following query performs a text search for the term cake and uses the $meta operator in the projection document to append the relevance score to each matching document:

db.articles.find(
{ $text: { $search: "cake" } },
{ score: { $meta: "textScore" } }
)

The returned document includes an additional field score that contains the document's relevance score:

{ "_id" : 3, "subject" : "Baking a cake", "author" : "abc", "views" : 90, "score" : 0.75 }
Tip
See also:
  • Starting in MongoDB 4.4, you can specify the { $meta: "textScore" } expression in the sort() without also specifying the expression in the projection. For example,

    db.articles.find(
    { $text: { $search: "cake" } }
    ).sort( { score: { $meta: "textScore" } } )

    As a result, you can sort the resulting documents by their search relevance without projecting the textScore.

    In earlier versions, to include { $meta: "textScore" } expression in the sort(), you must also include the same expression in the projection.
  • Starting in MongoDB 4.4, if you include the { $meta: "textScore" } expression in both the projection and sort(), the projection and sort documents can have different field names for the expression.

    For example, in the following operation, the projection uses a field named score for the expression and the sort() uses the field named ignoredName.
    db.articles.find(
    { $text: { $search: "cake" } } ,
    { score: { $meta: "textScore" } }
    ).sort( { ignoredName: { $meta: "textScore" } } )

    In previous versions of MongoDB, if { $meta: "textScore" } is included in both the projection and sort, you must specify the same field name for the expression.

  • In MongoDB 4.2 and earlier, to sort by the text score, include the same $meta expression in both the projection document and the sort expression. The following query searches for the term coffee and sorts the results by the descending score:

    db.articles.find(
    { $text: { $search: "coffee" } },
    { score: { $meta: "textScore" } }
    ).sort( { score: { $meta: "textScore" } } )

    The query returns the matching documents sorted by descending score.

Tip
See also:

Use the limit() method in conjunction with a sort() to return the top n matching documents.

The following query searches for the term coffee and sorts the results by the descending score, limiting the results to the top two matching documents:

db.articles.find(
{ $text: { $search: "coffee" } },
{ score: { $meta: "textScore" } }
).sort( { score: { $meta: "textScore" } } ).limit(2)
Tip
See also:

The following query searches for documents where the author equals "xyz" and the indexed field subject contains the terms coffee or bake. The operation also specifies a sort order of ascending date, then descending text search score:

db.articles.find(
{ author: "xyz", $text: { $search: "coffee bake" } },
{ score: { $meta: "textScore" } }
).sort( { date: 1, score: { $meta: "textScore" } } )
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