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db.collection.findOneAndUpdate()

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db.collection.findOneAndUpdate( filter, update, options )
Important
mongo Shell Method

This page documents the mongo shell method, and does not refer to the MongoDB Node.js driver (or any other driver) method. For corresponding MongoDB driver API, refer to your specific MongoDB driver documentation instead.

New in version 3.2.

Updates a single document based on the filter and sort criteria.

The findOneAndUpdate() method has the following form:

db.collection.findOneAndUpdate(
<filter>,
<update document or aggregation pipeline>, // Changed in MongoDB 4.2
{
projection: <document>,
sort: <document>,
maxTimeMS: <number>,
upsert: <boolean>,
returnNewDocument: <boolean>,
collation: <document>,
arrayFilters: [ <filterdocument1>, ... ]
}
)

The findOneAndUpdate() method takes the following parameters:

Parameter
Type
Description
filter
document

The selection criteria for the update. The same query selectors as in the find() method are available.

Specify an empty document { } to update the first document returned in the collection.

If unspecified, defaults to an empty document.

Starting in MongoDB 4.2 (and 4.0.12+, 3.6.14+, and 3.4.23+), the operation errors if the query argument is not a document.

update
document or array

The update document or, starting in MongoDB 4.2, an aggregation pipeline.

  • If passed a document with update operator expressions, db.collection.findOneAndUpdate() performs the specified modification.

    Note

    The document must contain only update operator expressions. You cannot specify a replacement document { <field1>: <value1>, ...}. To use a replacement document, see db.collection.findOneAndReplace() instead.

  • Starting in MongoDB 4.2, if passed an aggregation pipeline [ <stage1>, <stage2>, ... ], db.collection.findOneAndUpdate() modifies the document per the pipeline. The pipeline can consist of the following stages:

projection
document

Optional. A subset of fields to return.

To return all fields in the returned document, omit this parameter.

Starting in MongoDB 4.2 (and 4.0.12+, 3.6.14+, and 3.4.23+), the operation errors if the projection argument is not a document.

sort
document

Optional. Specifies a sorting order for the documents matched by the filter.

Starting in MongoDB 4.2 (and 4.0.12+, 3.6.14+, and 3.4.23+), the operation errors if the sort argument is not a document.

See cursor.sort().

maxTimeMS
number
Optional. Specifies a time limit in milliseconds within which the operation must complete within. Throws an error if the limit is exceeded.
upsert
boolean

Optional. When true, findOneAndUpdate() either:

  • Creates a new document if no documents match the filter. For more details see upsert behavior. Returns null after inserting the new document, unless returnNewDocument is true.
  • Updates a single document that matches the filter.

To avoid multiple upserts, ensure that the filter field(s) are uniquely indexed.

Defaults to false, which does not insert a new document when no match is found.

returnNewDocument
boolean

Optional. When true, returns the updated document instead of the original document.

Defaults to false.

collation
document

Optional.

Specifies the collation to use for the operation.

Collation allows users to specify language-specific rules for string comparison, such as rules for lettercase and accent marks.

The collation option has the following syntax:

collation: {
locale: <string>,
caseLevel: <boolean>,
caseFirst: <string>,
strength: <int>,
numericOrdering: <boolean>,
alternate: <string>,
maxVariable: <string>,
backwards: <boolean>
}

When specifying collation, the locale field is mandatory; all other collation fields are optional. For descriptions of the fields, see Collation Document.

If the collation is unspecified but the collection has a default collation (see db.createCollection()), the operation uses the collation specified for the collection.

If no collation is specified for the collection or for the operations, MongoDB uses the simple binary comparison used in prior versions for string comparisons.

You cannot specify multiple collations for an operation. For example, you cannot specify different collations per field, or if performing a find with a sort, you cannot use one collation for the find and another for the sort.

New in version 3.4.

arrayFilters
array

Optional. An array of filter documents that determine which array elements to modify for an update operation on an array field.

In the update document, use the $[<identifier>] filtered positional operator to define an identifier, which you then reference in the array filter documents. You cannot have an array filter document for an identifier if the identifier is not included in the update document.

Note

The <identifier> must begin with a lowercase letter and contain only alphanumeric characters.

You can include the same identifier multiple times in the update document; however, for each distinct identifier ($[identifier]) in the update document, you must specify exactly one corresponding array filter document. That is, you cannot specify multiple array filter documents for the same identifier. For example, if the update statement includes the identifier x (possibly multiple times), you cannot specify the following for arrayFilters that includes 2 separate filter documents for x:

// INVALID
[
{ "x.a": { $gt: 85 } },
{ "x.b": { $gt: 80 } }
]

However, you can specify compound conditions on the same identifier in a single filter document, such as in the following examples:

// Example 1
[
{ $or: [{"x.a": {$gt: 85}}, {"x.b": {$gt: 80}}] }
]
// Example 2
[
{ $and: [{"x.a": {$gt: 85}}, {"x.b": {$gt: 80}}] }
]
// Example 3
[
{ "x.a": { $gt: 85 }, "x.b": { $gt: 80 } }
]

For examples, see Array Update Operations with arrayFilters.

Note

arrayFilters is not available for updates that use an aggregation pipeline.

New in version 3.6.

Returns:Returns either the original document or, if returnNewDocument: true, the updated document.

db.collection.findOneAndUpdate() updates the first matching document in the collection that matches the filter. The sort parameter can be used to influence which document is updated.

Important
Language Consistency

Starting in MongoDB 4.4, as part of making find() and findAndModify() projection consistent with aggregation's $project stage,

The projection parameter takes a document in the following form:

{ field1 : <value>, field2 : <value> ... }
Projection
Description
<field>: <1 or true>
Specifies the inclusion of a field. Non-zero integers are also treated as true.
<field>: <0 or false>
Specifies the exclusion of a field.
"<field>.$": <1 or true>
With the use of the $ array projection operator, you can specify the projection to return the first element that match the query condition on the array field; e.g. "arrayField.$" : 1. (Not available for views.) Non-zero integers are also treated as true.
<field>: <array projection>
Using the array projection operators $elemMatch, $slice, specifies the array element(s) to include, thereby excluding those elements that do not meet the expressions. (Not available for views.)
<field>: <aggregation expression>

Specifies the value of the projected field.

Starting in MongoDB 4.4, with the use of aggregation expressions and syntax, including the use of literals and aggregation variables, you can project new fields or project existing fields with new values. For example,

  • If you specify a non-numeric, non-boolean literal (such as a literal string or an array or an operator expression) for the projection value, the field is projected with the new value; e.g.:

    • { field: [ 1, 2, 3, "$someExistingField" ] }
    • { field: "New String Value" }
    • { field: { status: "Active", total: { $sum: "$existingArray" } } }
  • To project a literal value for a field, use the $literal aggregation expression; e.g.:

    • { field: { $literal: 5 } }
    • { field: { $literal: true } }
    • { field: { $literal: { fieldWithValue0: 0, fieldWithValue1: 1 } } }

In versions 4.2 and earlier, any specification value (with the exception of the previously unsupported document value) is treated as either true or false to indicate the inclusion or exclusion of the field.

New in version 4.4.

For fields in an embedded documents, you can specify the field using either:

  • dot notation; e.g. "field.nestedfield": <value>
  • nested form; e.g. { field: { nestedfield: <value> } } (Starting in MongoDB 4.4)

The _id field is included in the returned documents by default unless you explicitly specify _id: 0 in the projection to suppress the field.

A projection cannot contain both include and exclude specifications, with the exception of the _id field:

  • In projections that explicitly include fields, the _id field is the only field that you can explicitly exclude.
  • In projections that explicitly excludes fields, the _id field is the only field that you can explicitly include; however, the _id field is included by default.

For more information on projection, see also:

To use db.collection.findOneAndUpdate() on a sharded collection, the query filter must include an equality condition on the shard key.

Starting in version 4.4, documents in a sharded collection can be missing the shard key fields. To target a document that is missing the shard key, you can use the null equality match in conjunction with another filter condition (such as on the _id field). For example:

{ _id: <value>, <shardkeyfield>: null } // _id of the document missing shard key

Starting in MongoDB 4.2, you can update a document's shard key value unless the shard key field is the immutable _id field. Before MongoDB 4.2, a document's shard key field value is immutable.

Warning

Starting in version 4.4, documents in sharded collections can be missing the shard key fields. Take precaution to avoid accidentally removing the shard key when changing a document's shard key value.

To modify the existing shard key value with db.collection.findOneAndUpdate():

  • You must run on a mongos. Do not issue the operation directly on the shard.
  • You must run either in a transaction or as a retryable write.
  • You must include an equality filter on the full shard key.

Starting in version 4.4, documents in a sharded collection can be missing the shard key fields. To use db.collection.findOneAndUpdate() to set the document's missing shard key,

  • You must run on a mongos. Do not issue the operation directly on the shard.
  • You must run either in a transaction or as a retryable write if the new shard key value is not null.
  • You must include an equality filter on the full shard key.
Tip

Since a missing key value is returned as part of a null equality match, to avoid updating a null-valued key, include additional query conditions (such as on the _id field) as appropriate.

See also:

db.collection.findOneAndUpdate() can be used inside multi-document transactions.

Important

In most cases, multi-document transaction incurs a greater performance cost over single document writes, and the availability of multi-document transactions should not be a replacement for effective schema design. For many scenarios, the denormalized data model (embedded documents and arrays) will continue to be optimal for your data and use cases. That is, for many scenarios, modeling your data appropriately will minimize the need for multi-document transactions.

For additional transactions usage considerations (such as runtime limit and oplog size limit), see also Production Considerations.

Starting in MongoDB 4.4 with feature compatibility version (fcv) "4.4", you can create collections and indexes inside a multi-document transaction if the transaction is not a cross-shard write transaction.

As such, for the feature compatibility version (fcv) is "4.4" or greater, db.collection.findOneAndUpdate() with upsert: true can be run against an existing collection or a non-existing collection. If run against a non-existing collection, the operation creates the collection.

If the feature compatibility version (fcv) is "4.2" or less, the operation must be against an existing collection.

Do not explicitly set the write concern for the operation if run in a transaction. To use write concern with transactions, see Transactions and Write Concern.

The grades collection contains documents similar to the following:

{ _id: 6305, name : "A. MacDyver", "assignment" : 5, "points" : 24 },
{ _id: 6308, name : "B. Batlock", "assignment" : 3, "points" : 22 },
{ _id: 6312, name : "M. Tagnum", "assignment" : 5, "points" : 30 },
{ _id: 6319, name : "R. Stiles", "assignment" : 2, "points" : 12 },
{ _id: 6322, name : "A. MacDyver", "assignment" : 2, "points" : 14 },
{ _id: 6234, name : "R. Stiles", "assignment" : 1, "points" : 10 }

The following operation finds the first document where name : R. Stiles and increments the score by 5:

db.grades.findOneAndUpdate(
{ "name" : "R. Stiles" },
{ $inc: { "points" : 5 } }
)

The operation returns the original document before the update:

{ _id: 6319, name: "R. Stiles", "assignment" : 2, "points" : 12 }

If returnNewDocument was true, the operation would return the updated document instead.

The grades collection contains documents similar to the following:

{ _id: 6305, name : "A. MacDyver", "assignment" : 5, "points" : 24 },
{ _id: 6308, name : "B. Batlock", "assignment" : 3, "points" : 22 },
{ _id: 6312, name : "M. Tagnum", "assignment" : 5, "points" : 30 },
{ _id: 6319, name : "R. Stiles", "assignment" : 2, "points" : 12 },
{ _id: 6322, name : "A. MacDyver", "assignment" : 2, "points" : 14 },
{ _id: 6234, name : "R. Stiles", "assignment" : 1, "points" : 10 }

The following operation updates a document where name : "A. MacDyver". The operation sorts the matching documents by points ascending to update the matching document with the least points.

db.grades.findOneAndUpdate(
{ "name" : "A. MacDyver" },
{ $inc : { "points" : 5 } },
{ sort : { "points" : 1 } }
)

The operation returns the original document before the update:

{ _id: 6322, name: "A. MacDyver", "assignment" : 2, "points" : 14 }

The following operation uses projection to only display the _id, points, and assignment fields in the returned document:

db.grades.findOneAndUpdate(
{ "name" : "A. MacDyver" },
{ $inc : { "points" : 5 } },
{ sort : { "points" : 1 }, projection: { "assignment" : 1, "points" : 1 } }
)

The operation returns the original document with only the fields specified in the projection document and the _id field as it was not explicitly suppressed (_id: 0) in the projection document.

{ "_id" : 6322, "assignment" : 2, "points" : 14 }

The following operation sets a 5ms time limit to complete the update:

try {
db.grades.findOneAndUpdate(
{ "name" : "A. MacDyver" },
{ $inc : { "points" : 5 } },
{ sort: { "points" : 1 }, maxTimeMS : 5 };
);
}
catch(e){
print(e);
}

If the operation exceeds the time limit, it returns:

Error: findAndModifyFailed failed: { "ok" : 0, "errmsg" : "operation exceeded time limit", "code" : 50 }

The following operation uses the upsert field to insert the update document if nothing matches the filter:

try {
db.grades.findOneAndUpdate(
{ "name" : "A.B. Abracus" },
{ $set: { "name" : "A.B. Abracus", "assignment" : 5}, $inc : { "points" : 5 } },
{ sort: { "points" : 1 }, upsert:true, returnNewDocument : true }
);
}
catch (e){
print(e);
}

The operation returns the following:

{
"_id" : ObjectId("5789249f1c49e39a8adc479a"),
"name" : "A.B. Abracus",
"assignment" : 5,
"points" : 5
}

If returnNewDocument was false, the operation would return null as there is no original document to return.

New in version 3.4.

Collation allows users to specify language-specific rules for string comparison, such as rules for lettercase and accent marks.

A collection myColl has the following documents:

{ _id: 1, category: "café", status: "A" }
{ _id: 2, category: "cafe", status: "a" }
{ _id: 3, category: "cafE", status: "a" }

The following operation includes the collation option:

db.myColl.findOneAndUpdate(
{ category: "cafe" },
{ $set: { status: "Updated" } },
{ collation: { locale: "fr", strength: 1 } }
);

The operation returns the following document:

{ "_id" : 1, "category" : "café", "status" : "A" }
Note

arrayFilters is not available for updates that use an aggregation pipeline.

New in version 3.6.

Starting in MongoDB 3.6, when updating an array field, you can specify arrayFilters that determine which array elements to update.

Note

arrayFilters is not available for updates that use an aggregation pipeline.

Create a collection students with the following documents:

db.students.insert([
{ "_id" : 1, "grades" : [ 95, 92, 90 ] },
{ "_id" : 2, "grades" : [ 98, 100, 102 ] },
{ "_id" : 3, "grades" : [ 95, 110, 100 ] }
])

To modify all elements that are greater than or equal to 100 in the grades array, use the filtered positional operator $[<identifier>] with the arrayFilters option in the db.collection.findOneAndUpdate() method:

db.students.findOneAndUpdate(
{ grades: { $gte: 100 } },
{ $set: { "grades.$[element]" : 100 } },
{ arrayFilters: [ { "element": { $gte: 100 } } ] }
)

The operation updates the grades field for a single document, and after the operation, the collection has the following documents:

{ "_id" : 1, "grades" : [ 95, 92, 90 ] }
{ "_id" : 2, "grades" : [ 98, 100, 100 ] }
{ "_id" : 3, "grades" : [ 95, 110, 100 ] }
Note

arrayFilters is not available for updates that use an aggregation pipeline.

Create a collection students2 with the following documents:

db.students2.insert([
{
"_id" : 1,
"grades" : [
{ "grade" : 80, "mean" : 75, "std" : 6 },
{ "grade" : 85, "mean" : 90, "std" : 4 },
{ "grade" : 85, "mean" : 85, "std" : 6 }
]
},
{
"_id" : 2,
"grades" : [
{ "grade" : 90, "mean" : 75, "std" : 6 },
{ "grade" : 87, "mean" : 90, "std" : 3 },
{ "grade" : 85, "mean" : 85, "std" : 4 }
]
}
])

The following operation finds a document where the _id field equals 1 and uses the filtered positional operator $[<identifier>] with the arrayFilters to modify the mean for all elements in the grades array where the grade is greater than or equal to 85.

db.students2.findOneAndUpdate(
{ _id : 1 },
{ $set: { "grades.$[elem].mean" : 100 } },
{ arrayFilters: [ { "elem.grade": { $gte: 85 } } ] }
)

The operation updates the grades field for a single document, and after the operation, the collection has the following documents:

{
"_id" : 1,
"grades" : [
{ "grade" : 80, "mean" : 75, "std" : 6 },
{ "grade" : 85, "mean" : 100, "std" : 4 },
{ "grade" : 85, "mean" : 100, "std" : 6 }
]
}
{
"_id" : 2,
"grades" : [
{ "grade" : 90, "mean" : 75, "std" : 6 },
{ "grade" : 87, "mean" : 90, "std" : 3 },
{ "grade" : 85, "mean" : 85, "std" : 4 }
]
}

Starting in MongoDB 4.2, db.collection.findOneAndUpdate() can accept an aggregation pipeline for the update. The pipeline can consist of the following stages:

Using the aggregation pipeline allows for a more expressive update statement, such as expressing conditional updates based on current field values or updating one field using the value of another field(s).

For example, create a collection students2 with the following documents:

db.students2.insert([
{
"_id" : 1,
"grades" : [
{ "grade" : 80, "mean" : 75, "std" : 6 },
{ "grade" : 85, "mean" : 90, "std" : 4 },
{ "grade" : 85, "mean" : 85, "std" : 6 }
]
},
{
"_id" : 2,
"grades" : [
{ "grade" : 90, "mean" : 75, "std" : 6 },
{ "grade" : 87, "mean" : 90, "std" : 3 },
{ "grade" : 85, "mean" : 85, "std" : 4 }
]
}
])

The following operation finds a document where the _id field equals 1 and uses an aggregation pipeline to calculate a new field total from the grades field:

db.students2.findOneAndUpdate(
{ _id : 1 },
[ { $set: { "total" : { $sum: "$grades.grade" } } } ], // The $set stage is an alias for ``$addFields`` stage
{ returnNewDocument: true }
)
Note

The $set used in the pipeline refers to the aggregation stage $set and not the update operator $set.

The operation returns the updated document :

{
"_id" : 1,
"grades" : [ { "grade" : 80, "mean" : 75, "std" : 6 }, { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 90, "std" : 4 }, { "grade" : 85, "mean" :85, "std" : 6 } ],
"total" : 250
}
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