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ObjectId

Overview

ObjectId is a 12-byte BSON type, constructed using:

  • a 4-byte timestamp,
  • a 3-byte machine identifier,
  • a 2-byte process id, and
  • a 3-byte counter, starting with a random value.

In MongoDB, documents stored in a collection require a unique _id field that acts as a primary key. Because ObjectIds are small, most likely unique, and fast to generate, MongoDB uses ObjectIds as the default value for the _id field if the _id field is not specified. MongoDB clients should add an _id field with a unique ObjectId. However, if a client does not add an _id field, mongod will add an _id field that holds an ObjectId.

Using ObjectIds for the _id field provides the following additional benefits:

  • you can access the timestamp of the ObjectId’s creation, using the getTimestamp() method.
  • sorting on an _id field that stores ObjectId values is roughly equivalent to sorting by creation time, although this relationship is not strict with ObjectId values generated on multiple systems within a single second.

Also consider the BSON Documents section for related information on MongoDB’s document orientation.

ObjectId()

The mongo shell provides the ObjectId() wrapper class to generate a new ObjectId, and to provide the following helper attribute and methods:

  • str

    The hexadecimal string value of the ObjectId() object.

  • getTimestamp()

    Returns the timestamp portion of the ObjectId() object as a Date.

  • toString()

    Returns the string representation of the ObjectId() object. The returned string literal has the format “ObjectId(...)”.

    Changed in version 2.2: In previous versions ObjectId.toString() returns the value of the ObjectId as a hexadecimal string.

  • valueOf()

    Returns the value of the ObjectId() object as a hexadecimal string. The returned string is the str attribute.

    Changed in version 2.2: In previous versions ObjectId.valueOf() returns the ObjectId() object.

Examples

Consider the following uses ObjectId() class in the mongo shell:

  • To generate a new ObjectId, use the ObjectId() constructor with no argument:

    x = ObjectId()
    

    In this example, the value of x would be:

    ObjectId("507f1f77bcf86cd799439011")
    
  • To generate a new ObjectId using the ObjectId() constructor with a unique hexadecimal string:

    y = ObjectId("507f191e810c19729de860ea")
    

    In this example, the value of y would be:

    ObjectId("507f191e810c19729de860ea")
    
  • To return the timestamp of an ObjectId() object, use the getTimestamp() method as follows:

    ObjectId("507f191e810c19729de860ea").getTimestamp()
    

    This operation will return the following Date object:

    ISODate("2012-10-17T20:46:22Z")
    
  • Access the str attribute of an ObjectId() object, as follows:

    ObjectId("507f191e810c19729de860ea").str
    

    This operation will return the following hexadecimal string:

    507f191e810c19729de860ea
    
  • To return the string representation of an ObjectId() object, use the toString() method as follows:

    ObjectId("507f191e810c19729de860ea").toString()
    

    This operation will return the following output:

    ObjectId("507f191e810c19729de860ea")
    
  • To return the value of an ObjectId() object as a hexadecimal string, use the valueOf() method as follows:

    ObjectId("507f191e810c19729de860ea").valueOf()
    

    This operation returns the following output:

    507f191e810c19729de860ea