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Quick Start

Prerequisites

  • A running MongoDB instance on localhost using the default port, 27017.
  • The Ruby MongoDB driver. See installation for instructions on how to install the MongoDB driver.
  • The following statement at the top of your code:
require 'mongo'

Make a Connection

Use Mongo::Client to establish a connection to a running MongoDB instance.

client = Mongo::Client.new([ '127.0.0.1:27017' ], :database => 'test')

You can also use a URI connection string:

client = Mongo::Client.new('mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/test')

Access a Database and a Collection

The following examples demonstrate how to access a particular database and show its collections:

client = Mongo::Client.new([ '127.0.0.1:27017' ], :database => 'test')
db = client.database

db.collections # returns a list of collection objects
db.collection_names # returns a list of collection names

To access a collection, refer to it by name.

collection = client[:restaurants]

If the collection does not exist, the server will create it the first time you put data into it.

Insert a Document

To insert a single document into a collection, use the insert_one method.

client = Mongo::Client.new('mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/test')

collection = client[:people]

doc = { name: 'Steve', hobbies: [ 'hiking', 'tennis', 'fly fishing' ] }

result = collection.insert_one(doc)
result.n # returns 1, because one document was inserted

To insert multiple documents into a collection, use the insert_many method.

docs = [ { _id: 1, name: 'Steve', hobbies: [ 'hiking', 'tennis', 'fly fishing' ] },
         { _id: 2, name: 'Sally', hobbies: ['skiing', 'stamp collecting' ] } ]

result = collection.insert_many(docs)
result.inserted_count # returns 2 because two documents were inserted

Query the Collection

Use the find method to create collection queries.

An empty query filter returns all documents in the collection.

client = Mongo::Client.new('mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/test')
collection = client[:people]

collection.find.each do |document|
  #=> Yields a BSON::Document.
end

Use a query filter to find only matching documents.

client = Mongo::Client.new('mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/test')
collection = client[:people]

puts collection.find( { name: 'Sally' } ).first

The example should print the following:

{"_id" => 2, "name" => "Sally", "hobbies" => ["skiing", "stamp collecting"]}

Update Documents

There are several update methods, including update_one and update_many. update_one updates a single document, while update_many updates multiple documents at once.

Both methods take as arguments a query filter document and a second document with the update data. Use $set to add or update a particular field or fields. Without $set, the entire existing document is replaced with the update data.

client = Mongo::Client.new('mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/test')
collection = client[:people]

result = collection.update_one( { 'name' => 'Sally' }, { '$set' => { 'phone_number' => "555-555-5555" } } )

puts collection.find( { 'name' => 'Sally' } ).first

The example should print the following:

{"_id" => 2, "name" => "Sally", "hobbies" => ["skiing", "stamp collecting"], "phone_number" => "555-555-5555"}

The following example uses update_many with a blank query filter to update all the documents in the collection.

client = Mongo::Client.new('mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/test')
collection = client[:people]

result = collection.update_many( {}, { '$set' => { 'age' => 36 } } )

puts result.modified_count # returns 2 because 2 documents were updated

Delete Documents

Use the delete_one or delete_many methods to delete documents from a collection (either singly or several at once).

client = Mongo::Client.new('mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/test')
collection = client[:people]

result = collection.delete_one( { name: 'Steve' } )

puts result.deleted_count # returns 1 because one document was deleted

The following example inserts two more records into the collection, then deletes all the documents with a name field which matches a regular expression to find a string which begins with “S”.

client = Mongo::Client.new('mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/test')
collection = client[:people]

collection.insert_many([ { _id: 3, name: "Arnold" }, { _id: 4, name: "Susan" } ])

puts collection.count # counts all documents in collection

result = collection.delete_many({ name: /$S*/ })

puts result.deleted_count # returns the number of documents deleted

Create Indexes

Use the create_one or create_many methods to create indexes singly or several at once.

client = Mongo::Client.new('mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/test')
collection = client[:people]

collection.indexes.create_one({ name: 1 }, unique: true)

Use the create_many method to create several indexes with one statement. Note that when using create_many, the syntax is different from create_one.

client = Mongo::Client.new('mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/test')
collection = client[:people]

collection.indexes.create_many([
    { key: { name: 1 } , unique: true },
    { key:  { hobbies: 1 } },
  ])

See also

Index options

Complete Sample App

A sample app using the Ruby driver for several common use cases is available for download from GitHub.

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