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$substrCP (aggregation)

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Definition

$substrCP

Returns the substring of a string. The substring starts with the character at the specified UTF-8 code point (CP) index (zero-based) in the string for the number of code points specified.

$substrCP has the following operator expression syntax:

{ $substrCP: [ <string expression>, <code point index>, <code point count> ] }
Field Type Description
string expression string

The string from which the substring will be extracted. string expression can be any valid expression as long as it resolves to a string. For more information on expressions, see Expressions.

If the argument resolves to a value of null or refers to a field that is missing, $substrCP returns an empty string.

If the argument does not resolve to a string or null nor refers to a missing field, $substrCP returns an error.

code point index number Indicates the starting point of the substring. code point index can be any valid expression as long as it resolves to a non-negative integer.
code point count number Can be any valid expression as long as it resolves to a non-negative integer or number that can be represented as an integer (such as 2.0).
Example Results
{ $substrCP: [ "abcde", 1, 2 ] } "bc"
{ $substrCP: [ "Hello World!", 6, 5 ] } "World"
{ $substrCP: [ "cafétéria", 0, 5 ] } "cafét"
{ $substrCP: [ "cafétéria", 5, 4 ] } "tér"
{ $substrCP: [ "cafétéria", 7, 3 ] } "ia"
{ $substrCP: [ "cafétéria", 3, 1 ] } "é"

Behavior

The $substrCP operator uses the code points to extract the substring. This behavior differs from the $substrBytes operator which extracts the substring by the number of bytes, where each character uses between one and four bytes.

Example

Single-Byte Character Set

Consider an inventory collection with the following documents:

{ "_id" : 1, "item" : "ABC1", quarter: "13Q1", "description" : "product 1" }
{ "_id" : 2, "item" : "ABC2", quarter: "13Q4", "description" : "product 2" }
{ "_id" : 3, "item" : "XYZ1", quarter: "14Q2", "description" : null }

The following operation uses the $substrCP operator to separate the quarter value into a yearSubstring and a quarterSubstring. The quarterSubstring field represents the rest of the string from the specified byte index following the yearSubstring. It is calculated by subtracting the byte index from the length of the string using $strLenCP.

db.inventory.aggregate(
  [
    {
      $project: {
        item: 1,
        yearSubstring: { $substrCP: [ "$quarter", 0, 2 ] },
        quarterSubtring: {
          $substrCP: [
            "$quarter", 2, { $subtract: [ { $strLenCP: "$quarter" }, 2 ] }
          ]
        }
      }
    }
  ]
)

The operation returns the following results:

{ "_id" : 1, "item" : "ABC1", "yearSubstring" : "13", "quarterSubtring" : "Q1" }
{ "_id" : 2, "item" : "ABC2", "yearSubstring" : "13", "quarterSubtring" : "Q4" }
{ "_id" : 3, "item" : "XYZ1", "yearSubstring" : "14", "quarterSubtring" : "Q2" }

Single-Byte and Multibyte Character Set

A collection named food contains the following documents:

{ "_id" : 1, "name" : "apple" }
{ "_id" : 2, "name" : "banana" }
{ "_id" : 3, "name" : "éclair" }
{ "_id" : 4, "name" : "hamburger" }
{ "_id" : 5, "name" : "jalapeño" }
{ "_id" : 6, "name" : "pizza" }
{ "_id" : 7, "name" : "tacos" }
{ "_id" : 8, "name" : "寿司sushi" }

The following example uses the $substrCP operator to create a three byte menuCode from the name value:

db.food.aggregate(
  [
    {
      $project: {
          "name": 1,
          "menuCode": { $substrCP: [ "$name", 0, 3 ] }
      }
    }
  ]
)

The operation returns the following results:

{ "_id" : 1, "name" : "apple", "menuCode" : "app" }
{ "_id" : 2, "name" : "banana", "menuCode" : "ban" }
{ "_id" : 3, "name" : "éclair", "menuCode" : "écl" }
{ "_id" : 4, "name" : "hamburger", "menuCode" : "ham" }
{ "_id" : 5, "name" : "jalapeño", "menuCode" : "jal" }
{ "_id" : 6, "name" : "pizza", "menuCode" : "piz" }
{ "_id" : 7, "name" : "tacos", "menuCode" : "tac" }
{ "_id" : 8, "name" : "寿司sushi", "menuCode" : "寿司s" }

See also

$substrBytes