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$geoNear (aggregation)

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Definition

$geoNear

Outputs documents in order of nearest to farthest from a specified point.

Note

Starting in version 4.2, MongoDB removes the limit and num options for the $geoNear stage as well as the default limit of 100 documents. To limit the results of $geoNear, use the $geoNear stage with the $limit stage.

The $geoNear stage has the following prototype form:

{ $geoNear: { <geoNear options> } }

The $geoNear operator accepts a document that contains the following $geoNear options. Specify all distances in the same units as those of the processed documents’ coordinate system:

Field Type Description
near GeoJSON point or legacy coordinate pair

The point for which to find the closest documents.

If using a 2dsphere index, you can specify the point as either a GeoJSON point or legacy coordinate pair.

If using a 2d index, specify the point as a legacy coordinate pair.

distanceField string The output field that contains the calculated distance. To specify a field within an embedded document, use dot notation.
spherical boolean

Optional. Determines how MongoDB calculates the distance between two points:

  • When true, MongoDB uses $nearSphere semantics and calculates distances using spherical geometry.
  • When false, MongoDB uses $near semantics: spherical geometry for 2dsphere indexes and planar geometry for 2d indexes.

Default: false.

maxDistance number

Optional. The maximum distance from the center point that the documents can be. MongoDB limits the results to those documents that fall within the specified distance from the center point.

Specify the distance in meters if the specified point is GeoJSON and in radians if the specified point is legacy coordinate pairs.

query document

Optional. Limits the results to the documents that match the query. The query syntax is the usual MongoDB read operation query syntax.

You cannot specify a $near predicate in the query field of the $geoNear stage.

distanceMultiplier number Optional. The factor to multiply all distances returned by the query. For example, use the distanceMultiplier to convert radians, as returned by a spherical query, to kilometers by multiplying by the radius of the Earth.
includeLocs string Optional. This specifies the output field that identifies the location used to calculate the distance. This option is useful when a location field contains multiple locations. To specify a field within an embedded document, use dot notation.
uniqueDocs boolean

Optional. If this value is true, the query returns a matching document once, even if more than one of the document’s location fields match the query.

Deprecated since version 2.6: Geospatial queries no longer return duplicate results. The $uniqueDocs operator has no impact on results.

minDistance number

Optional. The minimum distance from the center point that the documents can be. MongoDB limits the results to those documents that fall outside the specified distance from the center point.

Specify the distance in meters for GeoJSON data and in radians for legacy coordinate pairs.

New in version 3.2.

key  

Optional. Specify the geospatial indexed field to use when calculating the distance.

If your collection has multiple 2d and/or multiple 2dsphere indexes, you must use the key option to specify the indexed field path to use. Specify Which Geospatial Index to Use provides a full example.

If there is more than one 2d index or more than one 2dsphere index and you do not specify a key, MongoDB will return an error.

If you do not specify the key, and you have at most only one 2d index and/or only one 2dsphere index, MongoDB looks first for a 2d index to use. If a 2d index does not exists, then MongoDB looks for a 2dsphere index to use.

New in version 4.0.

Behavior

When using $geoNear, consider that:

  • You can only use $geoNear as the first stage of a pipeline.

  • You must include the distanceField option. The distanceField option specifies the field that will contain the calculated distance.

  • $geoNear requires a geospatial index.

    If you have more than one geospatial index on the collection, use the keys parameter to specify which field to use in the calculation. If you have only one geospatial index, $geoNear implicitly uses the indexed field for the calculation.

  • You cannot specify a $near predicate in the query field of the $geoNear stage.
  • Views do not support geoNear operations (i.e. $geoNear pipeline stage).
  • Starting in version 4.2, $geoNear no longer has a default limit of 100 documents.

Example

Note

Starting in version 4.2, MongoDB removes the limit and num options for the $geoNear stage as well as the default limit of 100 documents. To limit the results of $geoNear, use the $geoNear stage with the $limit stage.

Consider a collection places that has a 2dsphere index. The following aggregation uses $geoNear to find documents with a location at most 2 meters from the center [ -73.99279 , 40.719296 ] and category equal to Parks.

db.places.aggregate([
   {
     $geoNear: {
        near: { type: "Point", coordinates: [ -73.99279 , 40.719296 ] },
        distanceField: "dist.calculated",
        maxDistance: 2,
        query: { category: "Parks" },
        includeLocs: "dist.location",
        spherical: true
     }
   }
])

The aggregation returns the following:

{
   "_id" : 8,
   "name" : "Sara D. Roosevelt Park",
   "category" : "Parks",
   "location" : {
      "type" : "Point",
      "coordinates" : [ -73.9928, 40.7193 ]
   },
   "dist" : {
      "calculated" : 0.9539931676365992,
      "location" : {
         "type" : "Point",
         "coordinates" : [ -73.9928, 40.7193 ]
      }
   }
}

The matching document contains two new fields:

  • dist.calculated field that contains the calculated distance, and
  • dist.location field that contains the location used in the calculation.

Minimum Distance

Note

Starting in version 4.2, MongoDB removes the limit and num options for the $geoNear stage as well as the default limit of 100 documents. To limit the results of $geoNear, use the $geoNear stage with the $limit stage.

The following example uses the option minDistance to specify the minimum distance from the center point that the documents can be. The following aggregation finds all documents that

db.places.aggregate([
   {
     $geoNear: {
        near: { type: "Point", coordinates: [ -73.99279 , 40.719296 ] },
        distanceField: "dist.calculated",
        minDistance: 2,
        query: { category: "Parks" },
        includeLocs: "dist.location",
        spherical: true
     }
   }
])

Specify Which Geospatial Index to Use

New in version 4.0.

Consider a places collection that has a 2dsphere index on the location field and a 2d index on the legacy field.

A document in the places collection resembles the following:

{
   "_id" : 3,
   "name" : "Polo Grounds",
   "location": {
      "type" : "Point",
      "coordinates" : [ -73.9375, 40.8303 ]
   },
   "legacy" : [ -73.9375, 40.8303 ],
   "category" : "Stadiums"
}

The following example uses the key option to specify that the aggregation should use the location field values for the $geoNear operation rather than the legacy field values. The pipeline also uses $limit to return at most 5 documents.

Note

Starting in version 4.2, MongoDB removes the limit and num options for the $geoNear stage as well as the default limit of 100 documents. To limit the results of $geoNear, use the $geoNear stage with the $limit stage.

db.places.aggregate([
   {
     $geoNear: {
        near: { type: "Point", coordinates: [ -73.98142 , 40.71782 ] },
        key: "location",
        distanceField: "dist.calculated",
        query: { "category": "Parks" }
     }
   },
   { $limit: 5 }
])

The aggregation returns the following:

{
   "_id" : 8,
   "name" : "Sara D. Roosevelt Park",
   "location" : {
      "type" : "Point",
      "coordinates" : [
         -73.9928,
         40.7193
      ]
   },
   "category" : "Parks",
   "dist" : {
      "calculated" : 974.175764916902
   }
}
{
   "_id" : 1,
   "name" : "Central Park",
   "location" : {
      "type" : "Point",
      "coordinates" : [
         -73.97,
         40.77
      ]
   },
   "legacy" : [
      -73.97,
      40.77
   ],
   "category" : "Parks",
   "dist" : {
      "calculated" : 5887.92792958097
   }
}