Navigation

db.collection.update()

Definition

db.collection.update(query, update, options)

mongo Shell Method

This page documents the mongo shell method, and does not refer to the MongoDB Node.js driver (or any other driver) method. For corresponding MongoDB driver API, refer to your specific MongoDB driver documentation instead.

Modifies an existing document or documents in a collection. The method can modify specific fields of an existing document or documents or replace an existing document entirely, depending on the update parameter.

By default, the db.collection.update() method updates a single document. Include the option multi: true to update all documents that match the query criteria.

Syntax

The db.collection.update() method has the following form:

db.collection.update(
   <query>,
   <update>,
   {
     upsert: <boolean>,
     multi: <boolean>,
     writeConcern: <document>,
     collation: <document>,
     arrayFilters: [ <filterdocument1>, ... ],
     hint:  <document|string>        // Available starting in MongoDB 4.2
   }
)

Parameters

The db.collection.update() method takes the following parameters:

Parameter Type Description
query document

The selection criteria for the update. The same query selectors as in the find() method are available.

Changed in version 3.0: When you execute an update() with upsert: true and the query matches no existing document, MongoDB will refuse to insert a new document if the query specifies conditions on the _id field using dot notation.

update document or pipeline

The modifications to apply. Can be one of the following:

Update document

Contains only update operator expressions.

Replacement document

Contains only <field1>: <value1> pairs.

Aggregation pipeline

Consists only of the following aggregation stages:

For details and examples, see Examples.

upsert boolean

Optional. If set to true, creates a new document when no document matches the query criteria. The default value is false, which does not insert a new document when no match is found.

multi boolean

Optional. If set to true, updates multiple documents that meet the query criteria. If set to false, updates one document. The default value is false. For additional information, see Update Multiple Documents Examples.

writeConcern document

Optional. A document expressing the write concern. Omit to use the default write concern w: 1.

Do not explicitly set the write concern for the operation if run in a transaction. To use write concern with transactions, see Transactions and Write Concern.

For an example using writeConcern, see Override Default Write Concern.

collation document

Optional.

Collation allows users to specify language-specific rules for string comparison, such as rules for lettercase and accent marks.

For an example using collation, see Specify Collation.

New in version 3.4.

arrayFilters array

Optional. An array of filter documents that determine which array elements to modify for an update operation on an array field.

In the update document, use the $[<identifier>] to define an identifier to update only those array elements that match the corresponding filter document in the arrayFilters.

Note

You cannot have an array filter document for an identifier if the identifier is not included in the update document.

For examples, see Specify arrayFilters for Array Update Operations.

New in version 3.6.

hint Document or string

Optional. A document or string that specifies the index to use to support the query predicate.

The option can take an index specification document or the index name string.

If you specify an index that does not exist, the operation errors.

For an example, see Specify hint for Update Operations.

New in version 4.2.

Returns

The method returns a WriteResult document that contains the status of the operation.

Access Control

On deployments running with authorization, the user must have access that includes the following privileges:

  • update action on the specified collection(s).
  • find action on the specified collection(s).
  • insert action on the specified collection(s) if the operation results in an upsert.

The built-in role readWrite provides the required privileges.

Behavior

Sharded Collections

To use db.collection.update() with multi: false on a sharded collection, you must include an exact match on the _id field or target a single shard (such as by including the shard key).

When the db.collection.update() performs update operations (and not document replacement operations), db.collection.update() can target multiple shards.

See also

findAndModify()

Replace Document Operations on a Sharded Collection

Starting in MongoDB 4.2, replace document operations attempt to target a single shard, first by using the query filter. If the operation cannot target a single shard by the query filter, it then attempts to target by the replacement document.

In earlier versions, the operation attempts to target using the replacement document.

upsert on a Sharded Collection

For a db.collection.update() operation that includes upsert: true and is on a sharded collection, you must include the full shard key in the filter:

  • For an update operation.
  • For a replace document operation (starting in MongoDB 4.2).

Shard Key Modification

Starting in MongoDB 4.2, you can update a document’s shard key value unless the shard key field is the immutable _id field. For details on updating the shard key, see Change a Document’s Shard Key Value.

Before MongoDB 4.2, a document’s shard key field value is immutable.

To use db.collection.update() to update the shard key:

  • You must specify multi: false.
  • You must run on a mongos either in a transaction or as a retryable write. Do not issue the operation directly on the shard.
  • You must include an equality condition on the full shard key in the query filter. For example, if a collection messages uses { country : 1, userid : 1 } as the shard key, to update the shard key for a document, you must include country: <value>, userid: <value> in the query filter. You can include additional fields in the query as appropriate.

Transactions

db.collection.update() can be used inside multi-document transactions.

Important

In most cases, multi-document transaction incurs a greater performance cost over single document writes, and the availability of multi-document transactions should not be a replacement for effective schema design. For many scenarios, the denormalized data model (embedded documents and arrays) will continue to be optimal for your data and use cases. That is, for many scenarios, modeling your data appropriately will minimize the need for multi-document transactions.

For additional transactions usage considerations (such as runtime limit and oplog size limit), see also Production Considerations.

Existing Collections and Transactions

Inside a transaction, you can specify read/write operations on existing collections. If the db.collection.update() results in an upsert, the collection must already exist.

If the operation results in an upsert, the collection must already exist.

Write Concerns and Transactions

Do not explicitly set the write concern for the operation if run in a transaction. To use write concern with transactions, see Transactions and Write Concern.

Examples

From the mongo shell, create a books collection which contains the following documents. This command first removes all previously existing documents from the books collection:

db.books.remove({});

db.books.insertMany([
  {
    "_id" : 1,
    "item" : "TBD",
    "stock" : 0,
    "info" : { "publisher" : "1111", "pages" : 430 },
    "tags" : [ "technology", "computer" ],
    "ratings" : [ { "by" : "ijk", "rating" : 4 }, { "by" : "lmn", "rating" : 5 } ],
    "reorder" : false
   },
   {
    "_id" : 2,
    "item" : "XYZ123",
    "stock" : 15,
    "info" : { "publisher" : "5555", "pages" : 150 },
    "tags" : [ ],
    "ratings" : [ { "by" : "xyz", "rating" : 5 } ],
    "reorder" : false
   }
]);

If the <update> document contains update operator modifiers, such as those using the $set modifier, then:

  • The <update> document must contain only update operator expressions.
  • The db.collection.update() method updates only the corresponding fields in the document.
    • To update an embedded document or an array as a whole, specify the replacement value for the field.
    • To update particular fields in an embedded document or in an array, use dot notation to specify the field.

You can use the web shell below to insert the sample documents and execute the example update operation:

db.books.update(
   { _id: 1 },
   {
     $inc: { stock: 5 },
     $set: {
       item: "ABC123",
       "info.publisher": "2222",
       tags: [ "software" ],
       "ratings.1": { by: "xyz", rating: 3 }
     }
   }
)

In this operation:

  • The <query> parameter of { _id: 1 } specifies which document to update,
  • the $inc operator increments the stock field, and
  • the $set operator replaces the value of the
    • item field,
    • publisher field in the info embedded document,
    • tags field, and
    • second element in the ratings array.

The updated document is the following:

{
  "_id" : 1,
  "item" : "ABC123",
  "stock" : 5,
  "info" : { "publisher" : "2222", "pages" : 430 },
  "tags" : [ "software" ],
  "ratings" : [ { "by" : "ijk", "rating" : 4 }, { "by" : "xyz", "rating" : 3 } ],
  "reorder" : false
}

This operation corresponds to the following SQL statement:

UPDATE books
SET    stock = stock + 5
       item = "ABC123"
       publisher = 2222
       pages = 430
       tags = "software"
       rating_authors = "ijk,xyz"
       rating_values = "4,3"
WHERE  _id = 1

Note

If the query parameter had matched multiple documents, this operation would only update one matching document. To update multiple documents, you must set the multi option to true.

From the mongo shell, create a books collection which contains the following documents. This command first removes all previously existing documents from the books collection:

db.books.remove({});

db.books.insertMany([
  {
    "_id" : 1,
    "item" : "TBD",
    "stock" : 0,
    "info" : { "publisher" : "1111", "pages" : 430 },
    "tags" : [ "technology", "computer" ],
    "ratings" : [ { "by" : "ijk", "rating" : 4 }, { "by" : "lmn", "rating" : 5 } ],
    "reorder" : false
   },
   {
    "_id" : 2,
    "item" : "XYZ123",
    "stock" : 15,
    "info" : { "publisher" : "5555", "pages" : 150 },
    "tags" : [ ],
    "ratings" : [ { "by" : "xyz", "rating" : 5 } ],
    "reorder" : false
   }
]);

The following operation uses the $push update operator to append a new object to the ratings array.

You can use the web shell below to insert the sample documents and execute the example update operation:

db.books.update(
   { _id: 2 },
   {
     $push: { ratings: { "by" : "jkl", "rating" : 2 } }
   }
)

The updated document is the following:

{
  "_id" : 2,
  "item" : "XYZ123",
  "stock" : 15,
  "info" : {
   "publisher" : "5555",
   "pages" : 150
  },
  "tags" : [ ],
  "ratings" : [
   { "by" : "xyz", "rating" : 5 },
   { "by" : "jkl", "rating" : 2 }
  ],
  "reorder" : false
 }

See also

$push

From the mongo shell, create a books collection which contains the following documents. This command first removes all previously existing documents from the books collection:

db.books.remove({});

db.books.insertMany([
  {
    "_id" : 1,
    "item" : "TBD",
    "stock" : 0,
    "info" : { "publisher" : "1111", "pages" : 430 },
    "tags" : [ "technology", "computer" ],
    "ratings" : [ { "by" : "ijk", "rating" : 4 }, { "by" : "lmn", "rating" : 5 } ],
    "reorder" : false
   },
   {
    "_id" : 2,
    "item" : "XYZ123",
    "stock" : 15,
    "info" : { "publisher" : "5555", "pages" : 150 },
    "tags" : [ ],
    "ratings" : [ { "by" : "xyz", "rating" : 5 } ],
    "reorder" : false
   }
]);

The following operation uses the $unset operator to remove the tags field from the document with { _id: 1 }.

You can use the web shell below to insert the sample documents and execute the example update operation:

db.books.update( { _id: 1 }, { $unset: { tags: 1 } } )

The updated document is the following:

{
  "_id" : 1,
  "item" : "TBD",
  "stock" : 0,
  "info" : {
   "publisher" : "1111",
   "pages" : 430
  },
  "ratings" : [ { "by" : "ijk", "rating" : 4 }, { "by" : "lmn", "rating" : 5 } ],
  "reorder" : false
 }

There is not a direct SQL equivalent to $unset, however $unset is similar to the following SQL command which removes the tags field from the books table:

ALTER TABLE books
DROP COLUMN tags

From the mongo shell, create a books collection which contains the following documents. This command first removes all previously existing documents from the books collection:

db.books.remove({});

db.books.insertMany([
  {
    "_id" : 1,
    "item" : "TBD",
    "stock" : 0,
    "info" : { "publisher" : "1111", "pages" : 430 },
    "tags" : [ "technology", "computer" ],
    "ratings" : [ { "by" : "ijk", "rating" : 4 }, { "by" : "lmn", "rating" : 5 } ],
    "reorder" : false
   },
   {
    "_id" : 2,
    "item" : "XYZ123",
    "stock" : 15,
    "info" : { "publisher" : "5555", "pages" : 150 },
    "tags" : [ ],
    "ratings" : [ { "by" : "xyz", "rating" : 5 } ],
    "reorder" : false
   }
]);

If the <update> document contains only field:value expressions, then:

The following operation passes an <update> document that contains only field and value pairs. The <update> document completely replaces the original document except for the _id field.

You can use the web shell below to insert the sample documents and execute the example update operation:

db.books.update(
   { _id: 2 },
   {
     item: "XYZ123",
     stock: 10,
     info: { publisher: "2255", pages: 150 },
     tags: [ "baking", "cooking" ]
   }
)

The updated document contains only the fields from the replacement document and the _id field. As such, the fields ratings and reorder no longer exist in the updated document since the fields were not in the replacement document.

{
   "_id" : 2,
   "item" : "XYZ123",
   "stock" : 10,
   "info" : { "publisher" : "2255", "pages" : 150 },
   "tags" : [ "baking", "cooking" ]
}

This operation corresponds to the following SQL statements:

DELETE from books WHERE _id = 2

INSERT INTO books
            (_id,
             item,
             stock,
             publisher,
             pages,
             tags)
VALUES     (2,
            "xyz123",
            10,
            "2255",
            150,
            "baking,cooking")

From the mongo shell, create a books collection which contains the following documents. This command first removes all previously existing documents from the books collection:

db.books.remove({});

db.books.insertMany([
  {
    "_id" : 1,
    "item" : "TBD",
    "stock" : 0,
    "info" : { "publisher" : "1111", "pages" : 430 },
    "tags" : [ "technology", "computer" ],
    "ratings" : [ { "by" : "ijk", "rating" : 4 }, { "by" : "lmn", "rating" : 5 } ],
    "reorder" : false
   },
   {
    "_id" : 2,
    "item" : "XYZ123",
    "stock" : 15,
    "info" : { "publisher" : "5555", "pages" : 150 },
    "tags" : [ ],
    "ratings" : [ { "by" : "xyz", "rating" : 5 } ],
    "reorder" : false
   }
]);

If multi is set to true, the db.collection.update() method updates all documents that meet the <query> criteria. The multi update operation may interleave with other read/write operations.

The following operation sets the reorder field to true for all documents where stock is less than or equal to 10. If the reorder field does not exist in the matching document(s), the $set operator adds the field with the specified value.

You can use the web shell below to insert the sample documents and execute the example update operation:

db.books.update(
   { stock: { $lte: 10 } },
   { $set: { reorder: true } },
   { multi: true }
)

The resulting documents in the collection are the following:

[
  {
    "_id" : 1,
    "item" : "ABC123",
    "stock" : 5,
    "info" : {
     "publisher" : "2222",
     "pages" : 430
    },
    "ratings" : [ { "by" : "ijk", "rating" : 4 }, { "by" : "xyz", "rating" : 3 } ],
    "reorder" : true
   }
   {
     "_id" : 2,
     "item" : "XYZ123",
     "stock" : 10,
     "info" : { "publisher" : "2255", "pages" : 150 },
     "tags" : [ "baking", "cooking" ],
     "reorder" : true
   }
]

This operation corresponds to the following SQL statement:

UPDATE books
SET reorder=true
WHERE stock <= 10

Note

You cannot specify multi: true when performing a replacement, i.e., when the <update> document contains only field:value expressions.

See also

$set

Insert a New Document if No Match Exists (Upsert)

When you specify the option upsert: true:

If you specify upsert: true on a sharded collection, you must include the full shard key in the filter. For additional db.collection.update() behavior on a sharded collection, see Sharded Collections.

If no document matches the query criteria and the <update> parameter is a replacement document (i.e., contains only field and value pairs), the update inserts a new document with the fields and values of the replacement document.

  • If you specify an _id field in either the query parameter or replacement document, MongoDB uses that _id field in the inserted document.

  • If you do not specify an _id field in either the query parameter or replacement document, MongoDB generates adds the _id field with a randomly generated ObjectId value.

    Note

    You cannot specify different _id field values in the query parameter and replacement document. If you do, the operation errors.

For example, the following update sets the upsert option to true:

db.books.update(
   { item: "ZZZ135" },   // Query parameter
   {                     // Replacement document
     item: "ZZZ135",
     stock: 5,
     tags: [ "database" ]
   },
   { upsert: true }      // Options
)

If no document matches the <query> parameter, the update operation inserts a document with only the replacement document. Because no _id field was specified in the replacement document or query document, the operation creates a new unique ObjectId for the new document’s _id field. You can see the upsert reflected in the WriteResult of the operation:

WriteResult({
  "nMatched" : 0,
  "nUpserted" : 1,
  "nModified" : 0,
  "_id" : ObjectId("5da78973835b2f1c75347a83")
 })

The operation inserts the following document into the books collection (your ObjectId value will differ):

{
  "_id" : ObjectId("5da78973835b2f1c75347a83"),
  "item" : "ZZZ135",
  "stock" : 5,
  "tags" : [ "database" ]
}

If no document matches the query criteria and the <update> parameter is a document with update operator expressions, then the operation creates a base document from the equality clauses in the <query> parameter and applies the expressions from the <update> parameter.

Comparison operations from the <query> will not be included in the new document. If the new document does not include the _id field, MongoDB adds the _id field with an ObjectId value.

For example, the following update sets the upsert option to true:

db.books.update(
   { item: "BLP921" },   // Query parameter
   {                     // Update document
      $set: { reorder: false },
      $setOnInsert: { stock: 10 }
   },
   { upsert: true }      // Options
)

If no documents match the query condition, the operation inserts the following document (your ObjectId value will differ):

{
  "_id" : ObjectId("5da79019835b2f1c75348a0a"),
  "item" : "BLP921",
  "reorder" : false,
  "stock" : 10
}

See also

$setOnInsert

If the <update> parameter is an aggregation pipeline, the update creates a base document from the equality clauses in the <query> parameter, and then applies the pipeline to the document to create the document to insert. If the new document does not include the _id field, MongoDB adds the _id field with an ObjectId value.

For example, the following update sets the upsert option to true:

db.books.update(
   {                  // Query parameter
     item: "MRQ014",
     ratings: [2, 5, 3]
   },
   [                  // Aggregation pipeline
      {               // Update document
        $set: {
          "tags": [ "fiction", "hardcover" ],
          "averageRating": { $avg: "$ratings" }
        }
      }
   ],
   { upsert: true }   // Options
)

If no document matches the <query> parameter, the operation inserts the following document into the books collection (your ObjectId value will differ):

{
  "_id" : ObjectId("5da7991c835b2f1c75349ed9"),
  "item" : "MRQ014",
  "ratings" : [ 2, 5, 3 ],
  "tags" : [ "fiction", "hardcover" ],
  "averageRating" : 3.3333333333333335
}

See also

For additional examples of updates using aggregation pipelines, see Update with Aggregation Pipeline.

Combine Upsert and Multi Options (Match)

From the mongo shell, insert the following documents into a books collection:

db.books.insertMany([
  {
    _id: 5,
    item: "RQM909",
    stock: 18,
    info: { publisher: "0000", pages: 170 },
    reorder: true
  },
  {
    _id: 6,
    item: "EFG222",
    stock: 15,
    info: { publisher: "1111", pages: 72 },
    reorder: true
  }
])

The following operation specifies both the multi option and the upsert option. If matching documents exist, the operation updates all matching documents. If no matching documents exist, the operation inserts a new document.

db.books.update(
   { stock: { $gte: 10 } },        // Query parameter
   {                               // Update document
     $set: { reorder: false, tags: [ "literature", "translated" ] }
   },
   { upsert: true, multi: true }   // Options
)

The operation updates all matching documents and results in the following:

{
   "_id" : 5,
   "item" : "RQM909",
   "stock" : 18,
   "info" : { "publisher" : "0000", "pages" : 170 },
   "reorder" : false,
   "tags" : [ "literature", "translated" ]
}
{
   "_id" : 6,
   "item" : "EFG222",
   "stock" : 15,
   "info" : { "publisher" : "1111", "pages" : 72 },
   "reorder" : false,
   "tags" : [ "literature", "translated" ]
}

Combine Upsert and Multi Options (No Match)

If the collection had no matching document, the operation would result in the insertion of a single document using the fields from both the <query> and the <update> specifications. For example, consider the following operation:

db.books.update(
  { "info.publisher": "Self-Published" },   // Query parameter
  {                                         // Update document
    $set: { reorder: false, tags: [ "literature", "hardcover" ], stock: 25 }
  },
  { upsert: true, multi: true }             // Options
)

The operation inserts the following document into the books collection (your ObjectId value will differ):

{
  "_id" : ObjectId("5db337934f670d584b6ca8e0"),
  "info" : { "publisher" : "Self-Published" },
  "reorder" : false,
  "stock" : 25,
  "tags" : [ "literature", "hardcover" ]
}

When you execute an update() with upsert: true and the query matches no existing document, MongoDB will refuse to insert a new document if the query specifies conditions on the _id field using dot notation.

This restriction ensures that the order of fields embedded in the _id document is well-defined and not bound to the order specified in the query.

If you attempt to insert a document in this way, MongoDB will raise an error. For example, consider the following update operation. Since the update operation specifies upsert:true and the query specifies conditions on the _id field using dot notation, then the update will result in an error when constructing the document to insert.

db.collection.update( { "_id.name": "Robert Frost", "_id.uid": 0 },
   { "categories": ["poet", "playwright"] },
   { upsert: true } )

The WriteResult of the operation returns the following error:

WriteResult({
  "nMatched" : 0,
  "nUpserted" : 0,
  "nModified" : 0,
  "writeError" : {
    "code" : 111,
    "errmsg" : "field at '_id' must be exactly specified, field at sub-path '_id.name'found"
  }
})

See also

WriteResult()

Use Unique Indexes

Warning

To avoid inserting the same document more than once, only use upsert: true if the query field is uniquely indexed.

Given a collection named people where no documents have a name field that holds the value Andy, consider when multiple clients issue the following db.collection.update() with upsert: true at the same time:

db.people.update(
   { name: "Andy" },   // Query parameter
   {                   // Update document
      name: "Andy",
      rating: 1,
      score: 1
   },
   { upsert: true }    // Options
)

If all db.collection.update() operations complete the query portion before any client successfully inserts data, and there is no unique index on the name field, then each update operation may result in an insert.

To prevent MongoDB from inserting the same document more than once, create a unique index on the name field. With a unique index, if multiple applications issue the same update with upsert: true, exactly one db.collection.update() would successfully insert a new document.

The remaining operations would either:

  • update the newly inserted document, or

  • fail when they attempted to insert a duplicate.

    If the operation fails because of a duplicate index key error, applications may retry the operation which will succeed as an update operation.

See also

$setOnInsert

Update with Aggregation Pipeline

Starting in MongoDB 4.2, the db.collection.update() method can accept an aggregation pipeline [ <stage1>, <stage2>, ... ] that specifies the modifications to perform. The pipeline can consist of the following stages:

Using the aggregation pipeline allows for a more expressive update statement, such as expressing conditional updates based on current field values or updating one field using the value of another field(s).

Modify a Field Using the Values of the Other Fields in the Document

Create a members collection with the following documents:

db.members.insertMany([
   { "_id" : 1, "member" : "abc123", "status" : "A", "points" : 2, "misc1" : "note to self: confirm status", "misc2" : "Need to activate" },
   { "_id" : 2, "member" : "xyz123", "status" : "A", "points" : 60, "misc1" : "reminder: ping me at 100pts", "misc2" : "Some random comment" }
])

Assume that instead of separate misc1 and misc2 fields, you want to gather these into a new comments field. The following update operation uses an aggregation pipeline to add the new comments field and remove the misc1 and misc2 fields for all documents in the collection.

db.members.update(
   { },
   [
      { $set: { status: "Modified", comments: [ "$misc1", "$misc2" ] } },
      { $unset: [ "misc1", "misc2" ] }
   ],
   { multi: true }
)

Note

The $set and $unset used in the pipeline refers to the aggregation stages $set and $unset respectively, and not the update operators $set and $unset.

First Stage
The $set stage creates a new array field comments whose elements are the current content of the misc1 and misc2 fields.
Second Stage
The $unset stage removes the misc1 and misc2 fields.

After the command, the collection contains the following documents:

{ "_id" : 1, "member" : "abc123", "status" : "Modified", "points" : 2, "comments" : [ "note to self: confirm status", "Need to activate" ] }
{ "_id" : 2, "member" : "xyz123", "status" : "Modified", "points" : 60, "comments" : [ "reminder: ping me at 100pts", "Some random comment" ] }

Perform Conditional Updates Based on Current Field Values

Create a students3 collection with the following documents:

db.students3.insert([
   { "_id" : 1, "tests" : [ 95, 92, 90 ] },
   { "_id" : 2, "tests" : [ 94, 88, 90 ] },
   { "_id" : 3, "tests" : [ 70, 75, 82 ] }
]);

Using an aggregation pipeline, you can update the documents with the calculated grade average and letter grade.

db.students3.update(
   { },
   [
     { $set: { average : { $avg: "$tests" } } },
     { $set: { grade: { $switch: {
                           branches: [
                               { case: { $gte: [ "$average", 90 ] }, then: "A" },
                               { case: { $gte: [ "$average", 80 ] }, then: "B" },
                               { case: { $gte: [ "$average", 70 ] }, then: "C" },
                               { case: { $gte: [ "$average", 60 ] }, then: "D" }
                           ],
                           default: "F"
     } } } }
   ],
   { multi: true }
)

Note

The $set used in the pipeline refers to the aggregation stage $set, and not the update operators $set.

First Stage
The $set stage calculates a new field average based on the average of the tests field. See $avg for more information on the $avg aggregation operator.
Second Stage
The $set stage calculates a new field grade based on the average field calculated in the previous stage. See $switch for more information on the $switch aggregation operator.

After the command, the collection contains the following documents:

{ "_id" : 1, "tests" : [ 95, 92, 90 ], "average" : 92.33333333333333, "grade" : "A" }
{ "_id" : 2, "tests" : [ 94, 88, 90 ], "average" : 90.66666666666667, "grade" : "A" }
{ "_id" : 3, "tests" : [ 70, 75, 82 ], "average" : 75.66666666666667, "grade" : "C" }

Specify arrayFilters for Array Update Operations

In the update document, use the $[<identifier>] filtered positional operator to define an identifier, which you then reference in the array filter documents. You cannot have an array filter document for an identifier if the identifier is not included in the update document.

Note

The <identifier> must begin with a lowercase letter and contain only alphanumeric characters.

You can include the same identifier multiple times in the update document; however, for each distinct identifier ($[identifier]) in the update document, you must specify exactly one corresponding array filter document. That is, you cannot specify multiple array filter documents for the same identifier. For example, if the update statement includes the identifier x (possibly multiple times), you cannot specify the following for arrayFilters that includes 2 separate filter documents for x:

// INVALID

[
  { "x.a": { $gt: 85 } },
  { "x.b": { $gt: 80 } }
]

However, you can specify compound conditions on the same identifier in a single filter document, such as in the following examples:

// Example 1
[
  { $or: [{"x.a": {$gt: 85}}, {"x.b": {$gt: 80}}] }
]
// Example 2
[
  { $and: [{"x.a": {$gt: 85}}, {"x.b": {$gt: 80}}] }
]
// Example 3
[
  { "x.a": { $gt: 85 }, "x.b": { $gt: 80 } }
]

arrayFilters is not available for updates that use an aggregation pipeline.

Update Elements Match arrayFilters Criteria

To update all array elements which match a specified criteria, use the arrayFilters parameter.

From the mongo shell, create a students collection with the following documents:

db.students.insertMany([
   { "_id" : 1, "grades" : [ 95, 92, 90 ] },
   { "_id" : 2, "grades" : [ 98, 100, 102 ] },
   { "_id" : 3, "grades" : [ 95, 110, 100 ] }
])

To update all elements that are greater than or equal to 100 in the grades array, use the filtered positional operator $[<identifier>] with the arrayFilters option:

db.students.update(
   { grades: { $gte: 100 } },
   { $set: { "grades.$[element]" : 100 } },
   {
     multi: true,
     arrayFilters: [ { "element": { $gte: 100 } } ]
   }
)

After the operation, the collection contains the following documents:

{ "_id" : 1, "grades" : [ 95, 92, 90 ] }
{ "_id" : 2, "grades" : [ 98, 100, 100 ] }
{ "_id" : 3, "grades" : [ 95, 100, 100 ] }

Update Specific Elements of an Array of Documents

You can also use the arrayFilters parameter to update specific document fields within an array of documents.

From the mongo shell, create a students2 collection with the following documents:

db.students2.insertMany([
  {
    "_id" : 1,
    "grades" : [
       { "grade" : 80, "mean" : 75, "std" : 6 },
       { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 90, "std" : 4 },
       { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 85, "std" : 6 }
    ]
  }
  {
     "_id" : 2,
     "grades" : [
        { "grade" : 90, "mean" : 75, "std" : 6 },
        { "grade" : 87, "mean" : 90, "std" : 3 },
        { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 85, "std" : 4 }
     ]
  }
])

To modify the value of the mean field for all elements in the grades array where the grade is greater than or equal to 85, use the filtered positional operator $[<identifier>] with the arrayFilters:

db.students2.update(
   { },
   { $set: { "grades.$[elem].mean" : 100 } },
   {
     multi: true,
     arrayFilters: [ { "elem.grade": { $gte: 85 } } ]
   }
)

After the operation, the collection has the following documents:

{
   "_id" : 1,
   "grades" : [
      { "grade" : 80, "mean" : 75, "std" : 6 },
      { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 100, "std" : 4 },
      { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 100, "std" : 6 }
   ]
}
{
   "_id" : 2,
   "grades" : [
      { "grade" : 90, "mean" : 100, "std" : 6 },
      { "grade" : 87, "mean" : 100, "std" : 3 },
      { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 100, "std" : 4 }
   ]
}

Specify hint for Update Operations

New in version 4.2.

From the mongo shell, create a members collection with the following documents:

db.members.insertMany([
   { "_id" : 1, "member" : "abc123", "status" : "P", "points" :  0,  "misc1" : null, "misc2" : null },
   { "_id" : 2, "member" : "xyz123", "status" : "A", "points" : 60,  "misc1" : "reminder: ping me at 100pts", "misc2" : "Some random comment" },
   { "_id" : 3, "member" : "lmn123", "status" : "P", "points" :  0,  "misc1" : null, "misc2" : null },
   { "_id" : 4, "member" : "pqr123", "status" : "D", "points" : 20,  "misc1" : "Deactivated", "misc2" : null },
   { "_id" : 5, "member" : "ijk123", "status" : "P", "points" :  0,  "misc1" : null, "misc2" : null },
   { "_id" : 6, "member" : "cde123", "status" : "A", "points" : 86,  "misc1" : "reminder: ping me at 100pts", "misc2" : "Some random comment" }
])

Create the following indexes on the collection:

db.members.createIndex( { status: 1 } )
db.members.createIndex( { points: 1 } )

The following update operation explicitly hints to use the index {status: 1 }:

Note

If you specify an index that does not exist, the operation errors.

db.members.update(
   { points: { $lte: 20 }, status: "P" },     // Query parameter
   { $set: { misc1: "Need to activate" } },   // Update document
   { multi: true, hint: { status: 1 } }       // Options
)

The update command returns the following:

WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 3, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 3 })

To see the index used, run explain on the operation:

db.members.explain().update(
   { "points": { $lte: 20 }, "status": "P" },
   { $set: { "misc1": "Need to activate" } },
   { multi: true, hint: { status: 1 } }
)

The db.collection.explain().update() does not modify the documents.

Override Default Write Concern

The following operation on a replica set specifies a write concern of "w: majority" with a wtimeout of 5000 milliseconds such that the method returns after the write propagates to a majority of the voting replica set members or the method times out after 5 seconds.

Changed in version 3.0: In previous versions, majority referred to the majority of all members of the replica set instead of the majority of the voting members.

db.books.update(
   { stock: { $lte: 10 } },
   { $set: { reorder: true } },
   {
     multi: true,
     writeConcern: { w: "majority", wtimeout: 5000 }
   }
)

Specify Collation

Specifies the collation to use for the operation.

Collation allows users to specify language-specific rules for string comparison, such as rules for lettercase and accent marks.

The collation option has the following syntax:

collation: {
   locale: <string>,
   caseLevel: <boolean>,
   caseFirst: <string>,
   strength: <int>,
   numericOrdering: <boolean>,
   alternate: <string>,
   maxVariable: <string>,
   backwards: <boolean>
}

When specifying collation, the locale field is mandatory; all other collation fields are optional. For descriptions of the fields, see Collation Document.

If the collation is unspecified but the collection has a default collation (see db.createCollection()), the operation uses the collation specified for the collection.

If no collation is specified for the collection or for the operations, MongoDB uses the simple binary comparison used in prior versions for string comparisons.

You cannot specify multiple collations for an operation. For example, you cannot specify different collations per field, or if performing a find with a sort, you cannot use one collation for the find and another for the sort.

New in version 3.4.

From the mongo shell, create a collection named myColl with the following documents:

db.myColl.insertMany(
  [
    { _id: 1, category: "café", status: "A" },
    { _id: 2, category: "cafe", status: "a" },
    { _id: 3, category: "cafE", status: "a" }
  ])

The following operation includes the collation option and sets multi to true to update all matching documents:

db.myColl.update(
   { category: "cafe" },
   { $set: { status: "Updated" } },
   {
     collation: { locale: "fr", strength: 1 },
     multi: true
   }
);

The write result of the operation returns the following document, indicating that all three documents in the collection were updated:

WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 3, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 3 })

After the operation, the collection contains the following documents:

{ "_id" : 1, "category" : "café", "status" : "Updated" }
{ "_id" : 2, "category" : "cafe", "status" : "Updated" }
{ "_id" : 3, "category" : "cafE", "status" : "Updated" }

WriteResult

Successful Results

The db.collection.update() method returns a WriteResult object that contains the status of the operation. Upon success, the WriteResult object contains the number of documents that matched the query condition, the number of documents inserted by the update, and the number of documents modified:

WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 1, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 1 })

Write Concern Errors

If the db.collection.update() method encounters write concern errors, the results include the WriteResult.writeConcernError field:

WriteResult({
   "nMatched" : 1,
   "nUpserted" : 0,
   "nModified" : 1,
   "writeConcernError" : {
      "code" : 64,
      "errmsg" : "waiting for replication timed out at shard-a"
   }
})

Errors Unrelated to Write Concern

If the db.collection.update() method encounters a non-write concern error, the results include the WriteResult.writeError field:

WriteResult({
   "nMatched" : 0,
   "nUpserted" : 0,
   "nModified" : 0,
   "writeError" : {
      "code" : 7,
      "errmsg" : "could not contact primary for replica set shard-a"
   }
})