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db.collection.findOneAndUpdate()

Definition

db.collection.findOneAndUpdate(filter, update, options)

New in version 3.2.

Updates a single document based on the filter and sort criteria.

The findOneAndUpdate() method has the following form:

db.collection.findOneAndUpdate(
   <filter>,
   <update document or aggregation pipeline>, // Changed in MongoDB 4.2
   {
     projection: <document>,
     sort: <document>,
     maxTimeMS: <number>,
     upsert: <boolean>,
     returnNewDocument: <boolean>,
     collation: <document>,
     arrayFilters: [ <filterdocument1>, ... ]
   }
)

The findOneAndUpdate() method takes the following parameters:

Parameter Type Description
filter document

The selection criteria for the update. The same query selectors as in the find() method are available.

Specify an empty document { } to update the first document returned in the collection.

If unspecified, defaults to an empty document.

Starting in MongoDB 4.2 (and 4.0.12+, 3.6.14+, and 3.4.23+), the operation errors if the query argument is not a document.

update document or array

The update document or, starting in MongoDB 4.2, an aggregation pipeline.

projection document

Optional. A subset of fields to return.

To return all fields in the returned document, omit this parameter.

Starting in MongoDB 4.2 (and 4.0.12+, 3.6.14+, and 3.4.23+), the operation errors if the projection argument is not a document.

sort document

Optional. Specifies a sorting order for the documents matched by the filter.

Starting in MongoDB 4.2 (and 4.0.12+, 3.6.14+, and 3.4.23+), the operation errors if the sort argument is not a document.

See cursor.sort().

maxTimeMS number Optional. Specifies a time limit in milliseconds within which the operation must complete within. Throws an error if the limit is exceeded.
upsert boolean

Optional. When true, findOneAndUpdate() either:

  • Creates a new document if no documents match the filter. For more details see upsert behavior. Returns null after inserting the new document, unless returnNewDocument is true.
  • Updates a single document that matches the filter.

To avoid multiple upserts, ensure that the filter fields are uniquely indexed.

Defaults to false.

returnNewDocument boolean

Optional. When true, returns the updated document instead of the original document.

Defaults to false.

collation document

Optional.

Specifies the collation to use for the operation.

Collation allows users to specify language-specific rules for string comparison, such as rules for lettercase and accent marks.

The collation option has the following syntax:

collation: {
   locale: <string>,
   caseLevel: <boolean>,
   caseFirst: <string>,
   strength: <int>,
   numericOrdering: <boolean>,
   alternate: <string>,
   maxVariable: <string>,
   backwards: <boolean>
}

When specifying collation, the locale field is mandatory; all other collation fields are optional. For descriptions of the fields, see Collation Document.

If the collation is unspecified but the collection has a default collation (see db.createCollection()), the operation uses the collation specified for the collection.

If no collation is specified for the collection or for the operations, MongoDB uses the simple binary comparison used in prior versions for string comparisons.

You cannot specify multiple collations for an operation. For example, you cannot specify different collations per field, or if performing a find with a sort, you cannot use one collation for the find and another for the sort.

New in version 3.4.

arrayFilters array

Optional. An array of filter documents that determine which array elements to modify for an update operation on an array field.

In the update document, use the $[<identifier>] filtered positional operator to define an identifier, which you then reference in the array filter documents. You cannot have an array filter document for an identifier if the identifier is not included in the update document.

Note

The <identifier> must begin with a lowercase letter and contain only alphanumeric characters.

You can include the same identifier multiple times in the update document; however, for each distinct identifier ($[identifier]) in the update document, you must specify exactly one corresponding array filter document. That is, you cannot specify multiple array filter documents for the same identifier. For example, if the update statement includes the identifier x (possibly multiple times), you cannot specify the following for arrayFilters that includes 2 separate filter documents for x:

[
  { "x.a": { $gt: 85 } },
  { "x.b": { $gt: 80 } }
]

However, you can specify compound conditions on the same identifier in a single filter document, such as in the following examples:

[
  { $or: [{"x.a": {$gt: 85}}, {"x.b": {$gt: 80}}] }
]

[
  { $and: [{"x.a": {$gt: 85}}, {"x.b": {$gt: 80}}] }
]

[
  { "x.a": { $gt: 85 }, "x.b": { $gt: 80 } }
]

For examples, see Array Update Operations with arrayFilters.

Note

arrayFilters is not available for updates that use an aggregation pipeline.

New in version 3.6.

Returns:Returns either the original document or, if returnNewDocument: true, the updated document.

Behavior

Document Match

db.collection.findOneAndUpdate() updates the first matching document in the collection that matches the filter. The sort parameter can be used to influence which document is updated.

Projection

The projection parameter takes a document in the following form:

{ field1 : < boolean >, field2 : < boolean> ... }

The <boolean> value can be any of the following:

  • 1 or true to include the field. The method returns the _id field even if it is not explicitly stated in the projection parameter.
  • 0 or false to exclude the field. This can be used on any field, including _id.

Sharded Collections

To use db.collection.findOneAndUpdate() on a sharded collection, the query filter must include an equality condition on the shard key.

Starting in MongoDB 4.2, you can update a document’s shard key value unless the shard key field is the immutable _id field. For details on updating the shard key, see Change a Document’s Shard Key Value.

Before MongoDB 4.2, a document’s shard key field value is immutable.

Transactions

db.collection.findOneAndUpdate() supports multi-document transactions.

Important

In most cases, multi-document transaction incurs a greater performance cost over single document writes, and the availability of multi-document transactions should not be a replacement for effective schema design. For many scenarios, the denormalized data model (embedded documents and arrays) will continue to be optimal for your data and use cases. That is, for many scenarios, modeling your data appropriately will minimize the need for multi-document transactions.

For additional transactions usage considerations (such as runtime limit and oplog size limit), see also Production Considerations.

Existing Collections and Transactions

Inside a transaction, you can specify read/write operations on existing collections. If the db.collection.findOneAndUpdate() results in an upsert, the collection must already exist.

If the operation results in an upsert, the collection must already exist.

Write Concerns and Transactions

Do not explicitly set the write concern for the operation if run in a transaction. To use write concern with transactions, see Transactions and Write Concern.

Examples

Update A Document

The grades collection contains documents similar to the following:

{ _id: 6305, name : "A. MacDyver", "assignment" : 5, "points" : 24 },
{ _id: 6308, name : "B. Batlock", "assignment" : 3, "points" : 22 },
{ _id: 6312, name : "M. Tagnum", "assignment" : 5, "points" : 30 },
{ _id: 6319, name : "R. Stiles", "assignment" : 2, "points" : 12 },
{ _id: 6322, name : "A. MacDyver", "assignment" : 2, "points" : 14 },
{ _id: 6234, name : "R. Stiles", "assignment" : 1, "points" : 10 }

The following operation finds the first document where name : R. Stiles and increments the score by 5:

db.grades.findOneAndUpdate(
   { "name" : "R. Stiles" },
   { $inc: { "points" : 5 } }
)

The operation returns the original document before the update:

{ _id: 6319, name: "R. Stiles", "assignment" : 2, "points" : 12 }

If returnNewDocument was true, the operation would return the updated document instead.

Sort And Update A Document

The grades collection contains documents similar to the following:

{ _id: 6305, name : "A. MacDyver", "assignment" : 5, "points" : 24 },
{ _id: 6308, name : "B. Batlock", "assignment" : 3, "points" : 22 },
{ _id: 6312, name : "M. Tagnum", "assignment" : 5, "points" : 30 },
{ _id: 6319, name : "R. Stiles", "assignment" : 2, "points" : 12 },
{ _id: 6322, name : "A. MacDyver", "assignment" : 2, "points" : 14 },
{ _id: 6234, name : "R. Stiles", "assignment" : 1, "points" : 10 }

The following operation updates a document where name : "A. MacDyver". The operation sorts the matching documents by points ascending to update the matching document with the least points.

db.grades.findOneAndUpdate(
   { "name" : "A. MacDyver" },
   { $inc : { "points" : 5 } },
   { sort : { "points" : 1 } }
)

The operation returns the original document before the update:

{ _id: 6322, name: "A. MacDyver", "assignment" : 2, "points" : 14 }

Project the Returned Document

The following operation uses projection to only display the _id, points, and assignment fields in the returned document:

db.grades.findOneAndUpdate(
   { "name" : "A. MacDyver" },
   { $inc : { "points" : 5 } },
   { sort : { "points" : 1 }, projection: { "assignment" : 1, "points" : 1 } }
)

The operation returns the original document with only the fields specified in the projection document and the _id field as it was not explicitly suppressed (_id: 0) in the projection document.

{ "_id" : 6322, "assignment" : 2, "points" : 14 }

Update Document with Time Limit

The following operation sets a 5ms time limit to complete the update:

try {
   db.grades.findOneAndUpdate(
      { "name" : "A. MacDyver" },
      { $inc : { "points" : 5 } },
      { sort: { "points" : 1 }, maxTimeMS : 5 };
   );
}
catch(e){
   print(e);
}

If the operation exceeds the time limit, it returns:

Error: findAndModifyFailed failed: { "ok" : 0, "errmsg" : "operation exceeded time limit", "code" : 50 }

Update Document with Upsert

The following operation uses the upsert field to insert the update document if nothing matches the filter:

try {
db.grades.findOneAndUpdate(
   { "name" : "A.B. Abracus" },
   { $set: { "name" : "A.B. Abracus", "assignment" : 5}, $inc : { "points" : 5 } },
   { sort: { "points" : 1 }, upsert:true, returnNewDocument : true }
);
}
catch (e){
   print(e);
}

The operation returns the following:

{
   "_id" : ObjectId("5789249f1c49e39a8adc479a"),
   "name" : "A.B. Abracus",
   "assignment" : 5,
   "points" : 5
}

If returnNewDocument was false, the operation would return null as there is no original document to return.

Specify Collation

New in version 3.4.

Collation allows users to specify language-specific rules for string comparison, such as rules for lettercase and accent marks.

A collection myColl has the following documents:

{ _id: 1, category: "café", status: "A" }
{ _id: 2, category: "cafe", status: "a" }
{ _id: 3, category: "cafE", status: "a" }

The following operation includes the collation option:

db.myColl.findOneAndUpdate(
   { category: "cafe" },
   { $set: { status: "Updated" } },
   { collation: { locale: "fr", strength: 1 } }
);

The operation returns the following document:

{ "_id" : 1, "category" : "café", "status" : "A" }

Array Update Operations with arrayFilters

Note

arrayFilters is not available for updates that use an aggregation pipeline.

New in version 3.6.

Starting in MongoDB 3.6, when updating an array field, you can specify arrayFilters that determine which array elements to update.

Update Elements Match arrayFilters Criteria

Note

arrayFilters is not available for updates that use an aggregation pipeline.

Create a collection students with the following documents:

db.students.insert([
   { "_id" : 1, "grades" : [ 95, 92, 90 ] },
   { "_id" : 2, "grades" : [ 98, 100, 102 ] },
   { "_id" : 3, "grades" : [ 95, 110, 100 ] }
])

To modify all elements that are greater than or equal to 100 in the grades array, use the filtered positional operator $[<identifier>] with the arrayFilters option in the db.collection.findOneAndUpdate method:

db.students.findOneAndUpdate(
   { grades: { $gte: 100 } },
   { $set: { "grades.$[element]" : 100 } },
   { arrayFilters: [ { "element": { $gte: 100 } } ] }
)

The operation updates the grades field for a single document, and after the operation, the collection has the following documents:

{ "_id" : 1, "grades" : [ 95, 92, 90 ] }
{ "_id" : 2, "grades" : [ 98, 100, 100 ] }
{ "_id" : 3, "grades" : [ 95, 110, 100 ] }

Update Specific Elements of an Array of Documents

Note

arrayFilters is not available for updates that use an aggregation pipeline.

Create a collection students2 with the following documents:

db.students2.insert([
   {
      "_id" : 1,
      "grades" : [
         { "grade" : 80, "mean" : 75, "std" : 6 },
         { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 90, "std" : 4 },
         { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 85, "std" : 6 }
      ]
   },
   {
      "_id" : 2,
      "grades" : [
         { "grade" : 90, "mean" : 75, "std" : 6 },
         { "grade" : 87, "mean" : 90, "std" : 3 },
         { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 85, "std" : 4 }
      ]
   }
])

The following operation finds a document where the _id field equals 1 and uses the filtered positional operator $[<identifier>] with the arrayFilters to modify the mean for all elements in the grades array where the grade is greater than or equal to 85.

db.students2.findOneAndUpdate(
   { _id : 1 },
   { $set: { "grades.$[elem].mean" : 100 } },
   { arrayFilters: [ { "elem.grade": { $gte: 85 } } ] }
)

The operation updates the grades field for a single document, and after the operation, the collection has the following documents:

{
   "_id" : 1,
   "grades" : [
      { "grade" : 80, "mean" : 75, "std" : 6 },
      { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 100, "std" : 4 },
      { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 100, "std" : 6 }
    ]
}
{
   "_id" : 2,
   "grades" : [
      { "grade" : 90, "mean" : 75, "std" : 6 },
      { "grade" : 87, "mean" : 90, "std" : 3 },
      { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 85, "std" : 4 }
   ]
}

Use an Aggregation Pipeline for Updates

Starting in MongoDB 4.2, db.collection.findOneAndUpdate() can accept an aggregation pipeline for the update. The pipeline can consist of the following stages:

Using the aggregation pipeline allows for a more expressive update statement, such as expressing conditional updates based on current field values or updating one field using the value of another field(s).

For example, create a collection students2 with the following documents:

db.students2.insert([
   {
      "_id" : 1,
      "grades" : [
         { "grade" : 80, "mean" : 75, "std" : 6 },
         { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 90, "std" : 4 },
         { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 85, "std" : 6 }
      ]
   },
   {
      "_id" : 2,
      "grades" : [
         { "grade" : 90, "mean" : 75, "std" : 6 },
         { "grade" : 87, "mean" : 90, "std" : 3 },
         { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 85, "std" : 4 }
      ]
   }
])

The following operation finds a document where the _id field equals 1 and uses an aggregation pipeline to calculate a new field total from the grades field:

db.students2.findOneAndUpdate(
   { _id : 1 },
   [ { $set: { "total" : { $sum: "$grades.grade" } } } ],  // The $set stage is an alias for ``$addFields`` stage
   { returnNewDocument: true }
)

Note

The $set used in the pipeline refers to the aggregation stage $set and not the update operator $set.

The operation returns the updated document :

{
  "_id" : 1,
  "grades" : [ { "grade" : 80, "mean" : 75, "std" : 6 }, { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 90, "std" : 4 }, { "grade" : 85, "mean" :85, "std" : 6 } ],
  "total" : 250
}