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$toString (aggregation)

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Definition

$toString

New in version 4.0.

Converts a value of to a string. If the value cannot be converted to a string, $toString errors. If the value is null or missing, $toString returns null.

$toString has the following syntax:

{
   $toString: <expression>
}

The $toString takes any valid expression.

The $toString is a shorthand for the following $convert expression:

{ $convert: { input: <expression>, to: "string" } }

See also

$convert and $dateToString

Behavior

The following table lists the input types that can be converted to a string:

Input Type Behavior
Boolean Returns the boolean value as a string.
Double Returns the double value as a string.
Decimal Returns the decimal value as a string.
Integer Returns the integer value as a string.
Long Returns the long value as a string.
ObjectId Returns the ObjectId value as a hexadecimal string..
String No-op. Returns the string value.
Date Returns the date as a string.

The following table lists some conversion to string examples:

Example Results
{$toString: true} “true”
{$toString: false} “false”
{$toString: 2.5} “2.5”
{$toString: NumberInt(2)} “2”
{$toString:  NumberLong(1000)} “1000”
{$toString: ObjectId("5ab9c3da31c2ab715d421285")} “5ab9c3da31c2ab715d421285”
{$toString:  ISODate("2018-03-27T16:58:51.538Z")} “2018-03-27T16:58:51.538Z”

Example

Create a collection orders with the following documents:

db.orders.insert( [
   { _id: 1, item: "apple",  qty: 5, zipcode: 12345 },
   { _id: 2, item: "pie",  qty: 10, zipcode: 11111 },
   { _id: 3, item: "ice cream",  zipcode: "12345" },
   { _id: 4, item: "almonds", qty: 2, zipcode: "12345-0030" },
])

The following aggregation operation on the orders collection converts the zipcode to string before sorting by the string value:

// Define stage to add convertedZipCode field with the converted zipcode value

zipConversionStage = {
   $addFields: {
      convertedZipCode: { $toString: "$zipcode" }
   }
};

// Define stage to sort documents by the converted zipcode

sortStage = {
   $sort: { "convertedZipCode": 1 }
};

db.orders.aggregate( [
  zipConversionStage,
  sortStage
])

The operation returns the following documents:

{ "_id" : 2, "item" : "pie", "qty" : 10, "zipcode" : 11111, "convertedZipCode" : "11111" }
{ "_id" : 1, "item" : "apple", "qty" : 5, "zipcode" : 12345, "convertedZipCode" : "12345" }
{ "_id" : 3, "item" : "ice cream", "zipcode" : "12345", "convertedZipCode" : "12345" }
{ "_id" : 4, "item" : "almonds", "qty" : 2, "zipcode" : "12345-0030", "convertedZipCode" : "12345-0030" }

Note

If the conversion operation encounters an error, the aggregation operation stops and throws an error. To override this behavior, use $convert instead.