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$indexOfBytes (aggregation)

$indexOfBytes

New in version 3.4.

Searches a string for an occurrence of a substring and returns the UTF-8 byte index (zero-based) of the first occurrence. If the substring is not found, returns -1.

$indexOfBytes has the following operator expression syntax:

{ $indexOfBytes: [ <string expression>, <substring expression>, <start>, <end> ] }
Operand
Description
<string expression>

Can be any valid expression as long as it resolves to a string. For more information on expressions, see Expressions.

If the string expression resolves to a value of null or refers to a field that is missing, $indexOfBytes returns null.

If the string expression does not resolve to a string or null nor refers to a missing field, $indexOfBytes returns an error.

<substring expression>
Can be any valid expression as long as it resolves to a string. For more information on expressions, see Expressions.
<start>
Optional An integral number that specifies the starting index position for the search. Can be any valid expression that resolves to a non-negative integral number.
<end>
Optional An integral number that specifies the ending index position for the search. Can be any valid expression that resolves to a non-negative integral number. If you specify a <end> index value, you should also specify a <start> index value; otherwise, $indexOfBytes uses the <end> value as the <start> index value instead of the <end> value.
  • If <string expression> is null, $indexOfBytes returns null.
  • If $indexOfBytes is called on a field that doesn't exist in the document, $indexOfBytes returns null.
  • If <string expression> is not a string and not null, $indexOfBytes returns an error.
  • If <substring expression> is null, $indexOfBytes returns an error.
  • If <start> or <end> is a negative number, $indexOfBytes returns an error.
  • If <start> is a number greater than <end>, $indexOfBytes returns -1.
  • If <start> is a number greater than the byte length of the string, $indexOfBytes returns -1.
  • If <start> or <end> is given a value that is not an integer, $indexOfBytes returns an error.
  • If the <substring expression> is found multiple times within the <string expression>, then $indexOfBytes returns the index of the first <substring expression> found.

Some short examples to highlight different behavior:

Example
Results
{ $indexOfBytes: [ "cafeteria", "e" ] }
3
{ $indexOfBytes: [ "cafétéria", "é" ] }
3
{ $indexOfBytes: [ "cafétéria", "e" ] }
-1
{ $indexOfBytes: [ "cafétéria", "t" ] }
5
{ $indexOfBytes: [ "foo.bar.fi", ".", 5 ] }
7
{ $indexOfBytes: [ "vanilla", "ll", 0, 2 ] }
-1
{ $indexOfBytes: [ "vanilla", "ll", -1 ] }
-1
{ $indexOfBytes: [ "vanilla", "ll", 12 ] }
-1
{ $indexOfBytes: [ "vanilla", "ll", 5, 2 ] }
-1
{ $indexOfBytes: [ "vanilla", "nilla", 3 ] }
-1
{ $indexOfBytes: [ null, "foo" ] }
null

Consider an inventory collection with the following documents:

{ "_id" : 1, "item" : "foo" }
{ "_id" : 2, "item" : "fóofoo" }
{ "_id" : 3, "item" : "the foo bar" }
{ "_id" : 4, "item" : "hello world fóo" }
{ "_id" : 5, "item" : null }
{ "_id" : 6, "amount" : 3 }

The following operation uses the $indexOfBytes operator to retrieve the indexes at which the string foo is located in each item:

db.inventory.aggregate(
[
{
$project:
{
byteLocation: { $indexOfBytes: [ "$item", "foo" ] },
}
}
]
)

The operation returns the following results:

{ "_id" : 1, "byteLocation" : "0" }
{ "_id" : 2, "byteLocation" : "4" }
{ "_id" : 3, "byteLocation" : "4" }
{ "_id" : 4, "byteLocation" : "-1" }
{ "_id" : 5, "byteLocation" : null }
{ "_id" : 6, "byteLocation" : null }
Tip
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  • Definition
  • Behavior
  • Examples