Docs Menu

$derivative (aggregation)

On this page

  • Definition
  • Behavior
  • Example

New in version 5.0.

$derivative

Returns the average rate of change within the specified window, which is calculated using the:

  • First and last documents in the $setWindowFields stage window.
  • Numerator, which is set to the result of subtracting the numeric expression value for the first document from the expression value for the last document.
  • Denominator, which is set to the result of subtracting the sortBy field value for the first document from the sortBy field value for the last document.

$derivative is only available in the $setWindowFields stage. You must specify a window in the $setWindowFields stage when using $derivative.

$derivative syntax:

{
$derivative: {
input: <expression>,
unit: <time unit>
}
}

$derivative takes a document with these fields:

Field
Description

Specifies the expression to evaluate. The expression must evaluate to a number.

A string that specifies the time unit. Use one of these strings:

  • "week"
  • "day"
  • "hour"
  • "minute"
  • "second"
  • "millisecond"

If the sortBy field is not a date, you must omit a unit. If you specify a unit, you must specify a date in the sortBy field.

You must specify a window in the $setWindowFields stage when using $derivative.

Create a deliveryFleet collection that contains odometer readings for delivery trucks recorded at 30 second intervals:

db.deliveryFleet.insertMany( [
{ truckID: "1", timeStamp: new Date( "2020-05-18T14:10:30Z" ), miles: 1295.1 },
{ truckID: "1", timeStamp: new Date( "2020-05-18T14:11:00Z" ), miles: 1295.63 },
{ truckID: "1", timeStamp: new Date( "2020-05-18T14:11:30Z" ), miles: 1296.25 },
{ truckID: "1", timeStamp: new Date( "2020-05-18T14:12:00Z" ), miles: 1296.76 },
{ truckID: "2", timeStamp: new Date( "2020-05-18T14:10:30Z" ), miles: 10234.1 },
{ truckID: "2", timeStamp: new Date( "2020-05-18T14:11:00Z" ), miles: 10234.33 },
{ truckID: "2", timeStamp: new Date( "2020-05-18T14:11:30Z" ), miles: 10234.73 },
{ truckID: "2", timeStamp: new Date( "2020-05-18T14:12:00Z" ), miles: 10235.13 }
] )

This example uses $derivative in the $setWindowFields stage to obtain the average speed in miles per hour for each truck, and the $match stage to filter the results to trucks whose speed exceeded 50 miles per hour:

db.deliveryFleet.aggregate( [
{
$setWindowFields: {
partitionBy: "$truckID",
sortBy: { timeStamp: 1 },
output: {
truckAverageSpeed: {
$derivative: {
input: "$miles",
unit: "hour"
},
window: {
range: [ -30, 0 ],
unit: "second"
}
}
}
}
},
{
$match: {
truckAverageSpeed: {
$gt: 50
}
}
}
] )

In the example:

  • The $setWindowFields stage obtains the average speed in miles per hour for each truck:

    • partitionBy: "$truckID" partitions the documents in the collection by truckID.
    • sortBy: { timeStamp: 1 } sorts the documents in each partition by timeStamp in ascending order (1), so the earliest odometer reading is first.
    • output sets the miles derivative value in a new field called truckAverageSpeed using $derivative that is run in a range window.

      • The input expression is set to "$miles", which is used in the numerator for the derivative calculation.
      • The $derivative unit is set to "hour" for the timeStamp field, which is used in the denominator for the derivative calculation.
      • The window contains the range between a lower limit of -30 seconds (the previous 30 seconds from the current document in the output) and 0 seconds (matches the current document's timeStamp value in the output). This means $derivative returns the average speed for each truck in miles per hour in the 30 second window.
  • The $match stage uses the greater than operator $gt to filter the results to trucks whose speed exceeded 50 miles per hour.

In the following example output, the speed for truck 1 is shown in the truckAverageSpeed field. The speed for truck 2 is not shown because truck 2 did not exceed 50 miles per hour.

{ "_id" : ObjectId("60cb8a7e833dfeadc8e6285c"), "truckID" : "1",
"timeStamp" : ISODate("2020-05-18T14:11:00Z"), "miles" : 1295.63,
"truckAverageSpeed" : 63.60000000002401 }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("60cb8a7e833dfeadc8e6285d"), "truckID" : "1",
"timeStamp" : ISODate("2020-05-18T14:11:30Z"), "miles" : 1296.25,
"truckAverageSpeed" : 74.3999999999869 }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("60cb8a7e833dfeadc8e6285e"), "truckID" : "1",
"timeStamp" : ISODate("2020-05-18T14:12:00Z"), "miles" : 1296.76,
"truckAverageSpeed" : 61.199999999998916 }
Give Feedback
© 2021 MongoDB, Inc.

About

  • Careers
  • Legal Notices
  • Privacy Notices
  • Security Information
  • Trust Center
© 2021 MongoDB, Inc.