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db.collection.updateOne()

Definition

db.collection.updateOne(filter, update, options)

New in version 3.2.

Updates a single document within the collection based on the filter.

The updateOne() method has the following form:

Changed in version 3.6.

db.collection.updateOne(
   <filter>,
   <update>,
   {
     upsert: <boolean>,
     writeConcern: <document>,
     collation: <document>,
     arrayFilters: [ <filterdocument1>, ... ]
   }
)

The updateOne() method takes the following parameters:

Parameter Type Description
filter document

The selection criteria for the update. The same query selectors as in the find() method are available.

Specify an empty document { } to update the first document returned in the collection.

update document

The modifications to apply.

Use Update Operators such as $set, $unset, or $rename.

Using the update() pattern of field: value for the update parameter throws an error.

upsert boolean

Optional. When true, updateOne() either:

  • Creates a new document if no documents match the filter. For more details see upsert behavior.
  • Updates a single document that matches the filter.

To avoid multiple upserts, ensure that the filter fields are uniquely indexed.

Defaults to false.

writeConcern document

Optional. A document expressing the write concern. Omit to use the default write concern.

Do not explicitly set the write concern for the operation if run in a transaction. To use write concern with transactions, see Transaction Options (Read Concern/Write Concern/Read Preference).

collation document

Optional.

Specifies the collation to use for the operation.

Collation allows users to specify language-specific rules for string comparison, such as rules for lettercase and accent marks.

The collation option has the following syntax:

collation: {
   locale: <string>,
   caseLevel: <boolean>,
   caseFirst: <string>,
   strength: <int>,
   numericOrdering: <boolean>,
   alternate: <string>,
   maxVariable: <string>,
   backwards: <boolean>
}

When specifying collation, the locale field is mandatory; all other collation fields are optional. For descriptions of the fields, see Collation Document.

If the collation is unspecified but the collection has a default collation (see db.createCollection()), the operation uses the collation specified for the collection.

If no collation is specified for the collection or for the operations, MongoDB uses the simple binary comparison used in prior versions for string comparisons.

You cannot specify multiple collations for an operation. For example, you cannot specify different collations per field, or if performing a find with a sort, you cannot use one collation for the find and another for the sort.

New in version 3.4.

arrayFilters array

Optional. An array of filter documents that determines which array elements to modify for an update operation on an array field.

In the update document, use the $[<identifier>] filtered positional operator to define an identifier, which you then reference in the array filter documents. You cannot have an array filter document for an identifier if the identifier is not included in the update document.

Note

The <identifier> must begin with a lowercase letter and contain only alphanumeric characters.

You can include the same identifier multiple times in the update document; however, for each distinct identifier ($[identifier]) in the update document, you must specify exactly one corresponding array filter document. That is, you cannot specify multiple array filter documents for the same identifier. For example, if the update statement includes the identifier x (possibly multiple times), you cannot specify the following value for arrayFilters:

[ { "x.a": { $gt: 85} }, { "x.b": { $gt: 80 } } ]

However, you can specify compound conditions on the same identifier in a single array filter document, such as:

[ { $or: [ { "x.a": { $gt: 85} }, { "x.b": { $gt: 80 } } ] } ]
[ { $and: [ { "x.a": { $gt: 85} }, { "x.b": { $gt: 80 } } ] } ]

For examples, see Specify arrayFilters for an Array Update Operations.

New in version 3.6.

Returns:A document containing:
  • A boolean acknowledged as true if the operation ran with write concern or false if write concern was disabled
  • matchedCount containing the number of matched documents
  • modifiedCount containing the number of modified documents
  • upsertedId containing the _id for the upserted document

Behavior

updateOne() updates the first matching document in the collection that matches the filter, using the update instructions to apply modifications.

If upsert: true and no documents match the filter, updateOne() creates a new document based on the filter criteria and update modifications. See Update with Upsert.

Capped Collection

If an update operation changes the document size, the operation will fail.

Explainability

updateOne() is not compatible with db.collection.explain().

Use update() instead.

Transactions

db.collection.updateOne() supports multi-document transactions.

If the operation results in an upsert, the collection must already exist.

Do not explicitly set the write concern for the operation if run in a transaction. To use write concern with transactions, see Transaction Options (Read Concern/Write Concern/Read Preference).

Important

In most cases, multi-document transaction incurs a greater performance cost over single document writes, and the availability of multi-document transaction should not be a replacement for effective schema design. For many scenarios, the denormalized data model (embedded documents and arrays) will continue to be optimal for your data and use cases. That is, for many scenarios, modeling your data appropriately will minimize the need for multi-document transactions.

Examples

Update

The restaurant collection contains the following documents:

{ "_id" : 1, "name" : "Central Perk Cafe", "Borough" : "Manhattan" },
{ "_id" : 2, "name" : "Rock A Feller Bar and Grill", "Borough" : "Queens", "violations" : 2 },
{ "_id" : 3, "name" : "Empire State Pub", "Borough" : "Brooklyn", "violations" : 0 }

The following operation updates a single document where name: "Central Perk Cafe" with the violations field:

try {
   db.restaurant.updateOne(
      { "name" : "Central Perk Cafe" },
      { $set: { "violations" : 3 } }
   );
} catch (e) {
   print(e);
}

The operation returns:

{ "acknowledged" : true, "matchedCount" : 1, "modifiedCount" : 1 }

If no matches were found, the operation instead returns:

{ "acknowledged" : true, "matchedCount" : 0, "modifiedCount" : 0 }

Setting upsert: true would insert the document if no match was found. See Update with Upsert

Update with Upsert

The restaurant collection contains the following documents:

{ "_id" : 1, "name" : "Central Perk Cafe", "Borough" : "Manhattan", "violations" : 3 },
{ "_id" : 2, "name" : "Rock A Feller Bar and Grill", "Borough" : "Queens", "violations" : 2 },
{ "_id" : 3, "name" : "Empire State Pub", "Borough" : "Brooklyn", "violations" : "0" }

The following operation attempts to update the document with name : "Pizza Rat's Pizzaria", while upsert: true :

try {
   db.restaurant.updateOne(
      { "name" : "Pizza Rat's Pizzaria" },
      { $set: {"_id" : 4, "violations" : 7, "borough" : "Manhattan" } },
      { upsert: true }
   );
} catch (e) {
   print(e);
}

Since upsert:true the document is inserted based on the filter and update criteria. The operation returns:

{
   "acknowledged" : true,
   "matchedCount" : 0,
   "modifiedCount" : 0,
   "upsertedId" : 4
}

The collection now contains the following documents:

{ "_id" : 1, "name" : "Central Perk Cafe", "Borough" : "Manhattan", "violations" : 3 },
{ "_id" : 2, "name" : "Rock A Feller Bar and Grill", "Borough" : "Queens", "violations" : 2 },
{ "_id" : 3, "name" : "Empire State Pub", "Borough" : "Brooklyn", "violations" : 4 },
{ "_id" : 4, "name" : "Pizza Rat's Pizzaria", "Borough" : "Manhattan", "violations" : 7 }

The name field was filled in using the filter criteria, while the update operators were used to create the rest of the document.

The following operation updates the first document with violations that are greater than 10:

try {
   db.restaurant.updateOne(
      { "violations" : { $gt: 10} },
      { $set: { "Closed" : true } },
      { upsert: true }
   );
} catch (e) {
   print(e);
}

The operation returns:

{
   "acknowledged" : true,
   "matchedCount" : 0,
   "modifiedCount" : 0,
   "upsertedId" : ObjectId("56310c3c0c5cbb6031cafaea")
}

The collection now contains the following documents:

{ "_id" : 1, "name" : "Central Perk Cafe", "Borough" : "Manhattan", "violations" : 3 },
{ "_id" : 2, "name" : "Rock A Feller Bar and Grill", "Borough" : "Queens", "violations" : 2 },
{ "_id" : 3, "name" : "Empire State Pub", "Borough" : "Brooklyn", "violations" : 4 },
{ "_id" : 4, "name" : "Pizza Rat's Pizzaria", "Borough" : "Manhattan", "grade" : 7 }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("56310c3c0c5cbb6031cafaea"), "Closed" : true }

Since no documents matched the filter, and upsert was true, updateOne inserted the document with a generated _id and the update criteria only.

Update with Write Concern

Given a three member replica set, the following operation specifies a w of majority, wtimeout of 100:

try {
   db.restaurant.updateOne(
       { "name" : "Pizza Rat's Pizzaria" },
       { $inc: { "violations" : 3}, $set: { "Closed" : true } },
       { w: "majority", wtimeout: 100 }
   );
} catch (e) {
   print(e);
}

If the primary and at least one secondary acknowledge each write operation within 100 milliseconds, it returns:

{ "acknowledged" : true, "matchedCount" : 1, "modifiedCount" : 1 }

If the acknowledgement takes longer than the wtimeout limit, the following exception is thrown:

WriteConcernError({
   "code" : 64,
   "errInfo" : {
      "wtimeout" : true
   },
   "errmsg" : "waiting for replication timed out"
}) :

Specify Collation

New in version 3.4.

Collation allows users to specify language-specific rules for string comparison, such as rules for lettercase and accent marks.

A collection myColl has the following documents:

{ _id: 1, category: "café", status: "A" }
{ _id: 2, category: "cafe", status: "a" }
{ _id: 3, category: "cafE", status: "a" }

The following operation includes the collation option:

db.myColl.updateOne(
   { category: "cafe" },
   { $set: { status: "Updated" } },
   { collation: { locale: "fr", strength: 1 } }
);

Specify arrayFilters for an Array Update Operations

New in version 3.6.

Starting in MongoDB 3.6, when updating an array field, you can specify arrayFilters that determine which array elements to update.

Update Elements Match arrayFilters Criteria

Create a collection students with the following documents:

db.students.insert([
   { "_id" : 1, "grades" : [ 95, 92, 90 ] },
   { "_id" : 2, "grades" : [ 98, 100, 102 ] },
   { "_id" : 3, "grades" : [ 95, 110, 100 ] }
])

To modify all elements that are greater than or equal to 100 in the grades array, use the filtered positional operator $[<identifier>] with the arrayFilters option in the db.collection.updateOne method:

db.students.updateOne(
   { grades: { $gte: 100 } },
   { $set: { "grades.$[element]" : 100 } },
   { arrayFilters: [ { "element": { $gte: 100 } } ] }
)

The operation updates the grades field of a single document, and after the operation, the collection has the following documents:

{ "_id" : 1, "grades" : [ 95, 92, 90 ] }
{ "_id" : 2, "grades" : [ 98, 100, 100 ] }
{ "_id" : 3, "grades" : [ 95, 110, 100 ] }

Update Specific Elements of an Array of Documents

Create a collection students2 with the following documents:

db.students2.insert([
   {
      "_id" : 1,
      "grades" : [
         { "grade" : 80, "mean" : 75, "std" : 6 },
         { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 90, "std" : 4 },
         { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 85, "std" : 6 }
      ]
   },
   {
      "_id" : 2,
      "grades" : [
         { "grade" : 90, "mean" : 75, "std" : 6 },
         { "grade" : 87, "mean" : 90, "std" : 3 },
         { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 85, "std" : 4 }
      ]
   }
])

To modify the value of the mean field for all elements in the grades array where the grade is greater than or equal to 85, use the filtered positional operator $[<identifier>] with the arrayFilters in the db.collection.updateOne method:

.. cssclass:: copyable-code
db.students2.updateOne(
   { },
   { $set: { "grades.$[elem].mean" : 100 } },
   { arrayFilters: [ { "elem.grade": { $gte: 85 } } ] }
)

The operation updates the array of a single document, and after the operation, the collection has the following documents:

{
   "_id" : 1,
   "grades" : [
      { "grade" : 80, "mean" : 75, "std" : 6 },
      { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 100, "std" : 4 },
      { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 100, "std" : 6 }
    ]
}
{
   "_id" : 2,
   "grades" : [
      { "grade" : 90, "mean" : 75, "std" : 6 },
      { "grade" : 87, "mean" : 90, "std" : 3 },
      { "grade" : 85, "mean" : 85, "std" : 4 }
   ]
}

See also

To update multiple documents, see db.collection.updateMany().