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db.collection.replaceOne()

Definition

db.collection.replaceOne(filter, replacement, options)

mongo Shell Method

This page documents the mongo shell method, and does not refer to the MongoDB Node.js driver (or any other driver) method. For corresponding MongoDB driver API, refer to your specific MongoDB driver documentation instead.

New in version 3.2.

Replaces a single document within the collection based on the filter.

The replaceOne() method has the following form:

db.collection.replaceOne(
   <filter>,
   <replacement>,
   {
     upsert: <boolean>,
     writeConcern: <document>,
     collation: <document>,
     hint: <document|string>                   // Available starting in 4.2.1
   }
)

The replaceOne() method takes the following parameters:

Parameter Type Description
filter document

The selection criteria for the update. The same query selectors as in the find() method are available.

Specify an empty document { } to replace the first document returned in the collection.

replacement document

The replacement document.

Cannot contain update operators.

upsert boolean

Optional. When true, replaceOne() either:

  • Inserts the document from the replacement parameter if no document matches the filter.
  • Replaces the document that matches the filter with the replacement document.

MongoDB will add the _id field to the replacement document if it is not specified in either the filter or replacement documents. If _id is present in both, the values must be equal.

To avoid multiple upserts, ensure that the query fields are uniquely indexed.

Defaults to false.

writeConcern document

Optional. A document expressing the write concern. Omit to use the default write concern.

Do not explicitly set the write concern for the operation if run in a transaction. To use write concern with transactions, see Transactions and Write Concern.

collation document

Optional.

Specifies the collation to use for the operation.

Collation allows users to specify language-specific rules for string comparison, such as rules for lettercase and accent marks.

The collation option has the following syntax:

collation: {
   locale: <string>,
   caseLevel: <boolean>,
   caseFirst: <string>,
   strength: <int>,
   numericOrdering: <boolean>,
   alternate: <string>,
   maxVariable: <string>,
   backwards: <boolean>
}

When specifying collation, the locale field is mandatory; all other collation fields are optional. For descriptions of the fields, see Collation Document.

If the collation is unspecified but the collection has a default collation (see db.createCollection()), the operation uses the collation specified for the collection.

If no collation is specified for the collection or for the operations, MongoDB uses the simple binary comparison used in prior versions for string comparisons.

You cannot specify multiple collations for an operation. For example, you cannot specify different collations per field, or if performing a find with a sort, you cannot use one collation for the find and another for the sort.

New in version 3.4.

hint document

Optional. A document or string that specifies the index to use to support the filter.

The option can take an index specification document or the index name string.

If you specify an index that does not exist, the operation errors.

For an example, see Specify hint for replaceOne.

New in version 4.2.1.

Returns:A document containing:
  • A boolean acknowledged as true if the operation ran with write concern or false if write concern was disabled
  • matchedCount containing the number of matched documents
  • modifiedCount containing the number of modified documents
  • upsertedId containing the _id for the upserted document

Behavior

replaceOne() replaces the first matching document in the collection that matches the filter, using the replacement document.

upsert

If upsert: true and no documents match the filter, db.collection.replaceOne() creates a new document based on the replacement document.

If you specify upsert: true on a sharded collection, you must include the full shard key in the filter. For additional db.collection.replaceOne() behavior on a sharded collection, see Sharded Collections.

See Replace with Upsert.

Capped Collections

If a replacement operation changes the document size, the operation will fail.

Sharded Collections

Starting in MongoDB 4.2, db.collection.replaceOne() attempts to target a single shard, first by using the query filter. If the operation cannot target a single shard by the query filter, it then attempts to target by the replacement document.

In earlier versions, the operation attempts to target using the replacement document.

If replacing a document in a sharded collection, the replacement document must include the shard key. Additional requirements apply for upsert on a Sharded Collection and Shard Key Modification.

upsert on a Sharded Collection

Starting in MongoDB 4.2, for a db.collection.replaceOne() operation that includes upsert: true and is on a sharded collection, you must include the full shard key in the filter.

Shard Key Modification

Starting in MongoDB 4.2, you can update a document’s shard key value unless the shard key field is the immutable _id field. For details on updating the shard key, see Change a Document’s Shard Key Value.

Before MongoDB 4.2, a document’s shard key field value is immutable.

To use db.collection.replaceOne() to update the shard key:

  • You must run on a mongos either in a transaction or as a retryable write. Do not issue the operation directly on the shard.
  • You must include an equality condition on the full shard key in the query filter. For example, if a collection messages uses { country : 1, userid : 1 } as the shard key, to update the shard key for a document, you must include country: <value>, userid: <value> in the query filter. You can include additional fields in the query as appropriate.

Transactions

db.collection.replaceOne() can be used inside multi-document transactions.

If the operation results in an upsert, the collection must already exist.

Do not explicitly set the write concern for the operation if run in a transaction. To use write concern with transactions, see Transactions and Write Concern.

Important

In most cases, multi-document transaction incurs a greater performance cost over single document writes, and the availability of multi-document transactions should not be a replacement for effective schema design. For many scenarios, the denormalized data model (embedded documents and arrays) will continue to be optimal for your data and use cases. That is, for many scenarios, modeling your data appropriately will minimize the need for multi-document transactions.

For additional transactions usage considerations (such as runtime limit and oplog size limit), see also Production Considerations.

Examples

Replace

The restaurant collection contains the following documents:

{ "_id" : 1, "name" : "Central Perk Cafe", "Borough" : "Manhattan" },
{ "_id" : 2, "name" : "Rock A Feller Bar and Grill", "Borough" : "Queens", "violations" : 2 },
{ "_id" : 3, "name" : "Empire State Pub", "Borough" : "Brooklyn", "violations" : 0 }

The following operation replaces a single document where name: "Central Perk Cafe":

try {
   db.restaurant.replaceOne(
      { "name" : "Central Perk Cafe" },
      { "name" : "Central Pork Cafe", "Borough" : "Manhattan" }
   );
} catch (e){
   print(e);
}

The operation returns:

{ "acknowledged" : true, "matchedCount" : 1, "modifiedCount" : 1 }

If no matches were found, the operation instead returns:

{ "acknowledged" : true, "matchedCount" : 0, "modifiedCount" : 0 }

Setting upsert: true would insert the document if no match was found. See Replace with Upsert

Replace with Upsert

The restaurant collection contains the following documents:

{ "_id" : 1, "name" : "Central Perk Cafe", "Borough" : "Manhattan",  "violations" : 3 },
{ "_id" : 2, "name" : "Rock A Feller Bar and Grill", "Borough" : "Queens", "violations" : 2 },
{ "_id" : 3, "name" : "Empire State Pub", "Borough" : "Brooklyn", "violations" : 0 }

The following operation attempts to replace the document with name : "Pizza Rat's Pizzaria", with upsert : true:

try {
   db.restaurant.replaceOne(
      { "name" : "Pizza Rat's Pizzaria" },
      { "_id": 4, "name" : "Pizza Rat's Pizzaria", "Borough" : "Manhattan", "violations" : 8 },
      { upsert: true }
   );
} catch (e){
   print(e);
}

Since upsert : true the document is inserted based on the replacement document. The operation returns:

{
   "acknowledged" : true,
   "matchedCount" : 0,
   "modifiedCount" : 0,
   "upsertedId" : 4
}

The collection now contains the following documents:

{ "_id" : 1, "name" : "Central Perk Cafe", "Borough" : "Manhattan", "violations" : 3 },
{ "_id" : 2, "name" : "Rock A Feller Bar and Grill", "Borough" : "Queens", "violations" : 2 },
{ "_id" : 3, "name" : "Empire State Pub", "Borough" : "Brooklyn", "violations" : 0 },
{ "_id" : 4, "name" : "Pizza Rat's Pizzaria", "Borough" : "Manhattan", "violations" : 8 }

Replace with Write Concern

Given a three member replica set, the following operation specifies a w of majority and wtimeout of 100:

try {
   db.restaurant.replaceOne(
       { "name" : "Pizza Rat's Pizzaria" },
       { "name" : "Pizza Rat's Pub", "Borough" : "Manhattan", "violations" : 3 },
       { w: "majority", wtimeout: 100 }
   );
} catch (e) {
   print(e);
}

If the acknowledgement takes longer than the wtimeout limit, the following exception is thrown:

WriteConcernError({
   "code" : 64,
   "errInfo" : {
      "wtimeout" : true
   },
   "errmsg" : "waiting for replication timed out"
})

Specify Collation

New in version 3.4.

Collation allows users to specify language-specific rules for string comparison, such as rules for lettercase and accent marks.

A collection myColl has the following documents:

{ _id: 1, category: "café", status: "A" }
{ _id: 2, category: "cafe", status: "a" }
{ _id: 3, category: "cafE", status: "a" }

The following operation includes the collation option:

db.myColl.replaceOne(
   { category: "cafe", status: "a" },
   { category: "cafÉ", status: "Replaced" },
   { collation: { locale: "fr", strength: 1 } }

);

Specify hint for replaceOne

New in version 4.2.1.

Create a sample members collection with the following documents:

db.members.insertMany([
   { "_id" : 1, "member" : "abc123", "status" : "P", "points" :  0,  "misc1" : null, "misc2" : null },
   { "_id" : 2, "member" : "xyz123", "status" : "A", "points" : 60,  "misc1" : "reminder: ping me at 100pts", "misc2" : "Some random comment" },
   { "_id" : 3, "member" : "lmn123", "status" : "P", "points" :  0,  "misc1" : null, "misc2" : null },
   { "_id" : 4, "member" : "pqr123", "status" : "D", "points" : 20,  "misc1" : "Deactivated", "misc2" : null },
   { "_id" : 5, "member" : "ijk123", "status" : "P", "points" :  0,  "misc1" : null, "misc2" : null },
   { "_id" : 6, "member" : "cde123", "status" : "A", "points" : 86,  "misc1" : "reminder: ping me at 100pts", "misc2" : "Some random comment" }
])

Create the following indexes on the collection:

db.members.createIndex( { status: 1 } )
db.members.createIndex( { points: 1 } )

The following update operation explicitly hints to use the index { status: 1 }:

Note

If you specify an index that does not exist, the operation errors.

db.members.replaceOne(
   { "points": { $lte: 20 }, "status": "P" },
   { "misc1": "using index on status", status: "P", member: "replacement", points: "20"},
   { hint: { status: 1 } }
)

The operation returns the following:

{ "acknowledged" : true, "matchedCount" : 1, "modifiedCount" : 1 }

To view the indexes used, you can use the $indexStats pipeline:

db.members.aggregate( [ { $indexStats: { } }, { $sort: { name: 1 } } ] )