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Drivers API

Callback API vs Core API

The Callback API:

The Core API:

Callback API

The new callback API incorporates logic:

Important

  • For transactions on MongoDB 4.2 deployments (replica sets and sharded clusters), clients must use MongoDB drivers updated for MongoDB 4.2.
  • When using the drivers, each operation in the transaction must be associated with the session (i.e. pass in the session to each operation).

The example uses the new callback API for working with transactions, which starts a transaction, executes the specified operations, and commits (or aborts on error). The new callback API incorporates retry logic for "TransientTransactionError" or "UnknownTransactionCommitResult" commit errors.


# For a replica set, include the replica set name and a seedlist of the members in the URI string; e.g.
# uriString = 'mongodb://mongodb0.example.com:27017,mongodb1.example.com:27017/?replicaSet=myRepl'
# For a sharded cluster, connect to the mongos instances; e.g.
# uriString = 'mongodb://mongos0.example.com:27017,mongos1.example.com:27017/'

client = MongoClient(uriString)
wc_majority = WriteConcern("majority", wtimeout=1000)

# Prereq: Create collections. CRUD operations in transactions must be on existing collections.
client.get_database(
    "mydb1", write_concern=wc_majority).foo.insert_one({'abc': 0})
client.get_database(
    "mydb2", write_concern=wc_majority).bar.insert_one({'xyz': 0})

# Step 1: Define the callback that specifies the sequence of operations to perform inside the transactions.
def callback(session):
    collection_one = session.client.mydb1.foo
    collection_two = session.client.mydb2.bar

    # Important:: You must pass the session to the operations.
    collection_one.insert_one({'abc': 1}, session=session)
    collection_two.insert_one({'xyz': 999}, session=session)

# Step 2: Start a client session.
with client.start_session() as session:
    # Step 3: Use with_transaction to start a transaction, execute the callback, and commit (or abort on error).
    session.with_transaction(
        callback, read_concern=ReadConcern('local'),
        write_concern=wc_majority,
        read_preference=ReadPreference.PRIMARY)

Important

  • For transactions on MongoDB 4.2 deployments (replica sets and sharded clusters), clients must use MongoDB drivers updated for MongoDB 4.2.
  • When using the drivers, each operation in the transaction must be associated with the session (i.e. pass in the session to each operation).

The example uses the new callback API for working with transactions, which starts a transaction, executes the specified operations, and commits (or aborts on error). The new callback API incorporates retry logic for "TransientTransactionError" or "UnknownTransactionCommitResult" commit errors.

/*
  For a replica set, include the replica set name and a seedlist of the members in the URI string; e.g.
  String uri = "mongodb://mongodb0.example.com:27017,mongodb1.example.com:27017/admin?replicaSet=myRepl";
  For a sharded cluster, connect to the mongos instances; e.g.
  String uri = "mongodb://mongos0.example.com:27017,mongos1.example.com:27017:27017/admin";
 */

final MongoClient client = MongoClients.create(uri);

/*
    Prereq: Create collections. CRUD operations in transactions must be on existing collections.
 */

client.getDatabase("mydb1").getCollection("foo")
        .withWriteConcern(WriteConcern.MAJORITY).insertOne( new Document("abc", 0));
client.getDatabase("mydb2").getCollection("bar")
        .withWriteConcern(WriteConcern.MAJORITY).insertOne( new Document("xyz", 0));

/* Step 1: Start a client session. */

final ClientSession clientSession = client.startSession();

/* Step 2: Optional. Define options to use for the transaction. */

TransactionOptions txnOptions = TransactionOptions.builder()
        .readPreference(ReadPreference.primary())
        .readConcern(ReadConcern.LOCAL)
        .writeConcern(WriteConcern.MAJORITY)
        .build();

/* Step 3: Define the sequence of operations to perform inside the transactions. */

TransactionBody txnBody = new TransactionBody<String>() {
    public String execute() {
        MongoCollection<Document> coll1 = client.getDatabase("mydb1").getCollection("foo");
        MongoCollection<Document> coll2 = client.getDatabase("mydb2").getCollection("bar");

        /*
           Important:: You must pass the session to the operations..
         */

        coll1.insertOne(clientSession, new Document("abc", 1));
        coll2.insertOne(clientSession, new Document("xyz", 999));

        return "Inserted into collections in different databases";
    }
};
try {
    /*
        Step 4: Use .withTransaction() to start a transaction,
        execute the callback, and commit (or abort on error).
     */

    clientSession.withTransaction(txnBody, txnOptions);
} catch (RuntimeException e) {
    // some error handling
} finally {
    clientSession.close();
}

Important

  • For transactions on MongoDB 4.2 deployments (replica sets and sharded clusters), clients must use MongoDB drivers updated for MongoDB 4.2.
  • When using the drivers, each operation in the transaction must be associated with the session (i.e. pass in the session to each operation).

The example uses the new callback API for working with transactions, which starts a transaction, executes the specified operations, and commits (or aborts on error). The new callback API incorporates retry logic for "TransientTransactionError" or "UnknownTransactionCommitResult" commit errors.

  // For a replica set, include the replica set name and a seedlist of the members in the URI string; e.g.
  // const uri = 'mongodb://mongodb0.example.com:27017,mongodb1.example.com:27017/?replicaSet=myRepl'
  // For a sharded cluster, connect to the mongos instances; e.g.
  // const uri = 'mongodb://mongos0.example.com:27017,mongos1.example.com:27017/'

  const client = new MongoClient(uri);
  await client.connect();

  // Prereq: Create collections. CRUD operations in transactions must be on existing collections.

  await client
    .db('mydb1')
    .collection('foo')
    .insertOne({ abc: 0 }, { w: 'majority' });

  await client
    .db('mydb2')
    .collection('bar')
    .insertOne({ xyz: 0 }, { w: 'majority' });

  // Step 1: Start a Client Session
  const session = client.startSession();

  // Step 2: Optional. Define options to use for the transaction
  const transactionOptions = {
    readPreference: 'primary',
    readConcern: { level: 'local' },
    writeConcern: { w: 'majority' }
  };

  // Step 3: Use withTransaction to start a transaction, execute the callback, and commit (or abort on error)
  // Note: The callback for withTransaction MUST be async and/or return a Promise.
  try {
    await session.withTransaction(async () => {
      const coll1 = client.db('mydb1').collection('foo');
      const coll2 = client.db('mydb2').collection('bar');

      // Important:: You must pass the session to the operations

      await coll1.insertOne({ abc: 1 }, { session });
      await coll2.insertOne({ xyz: 999 }, { session });
    }, transactionOptions);
  } finally {
    await session.endSession();
    await client.close();
  }

The example uses the new callback API for working with transactions, which starts a transaction, executes the specified operations, and commits (or aborts on error). The new callback API also incorporates retry logic for TransientTransactionError or UnknownTransactionCommitResult commit errors.

Important

  • For transactions on MongoDB 4.2 deployments (replica sets and sharded clusters), clients must use MongoDB drivers updated for MongoDB 4.2.
  • When using the drivers, each operation in the transaction must be associated with the session (i.e. pass in the session to each operation).
/*
 * For a replica set, include the replica set name and a seedlist of the members in the URI string; e.g.
 * uriString = 'mongodb://mongodb0.example.com:27017,mongodb1.example.com:27017/?replicaSet=myRepl'
 * For a sharded cluster, connect to the mongos instances; e.g.
 * uriString = 'mongodb://mongos0.example.com:27017,mongos1.example.com:27017/'
 */

$client = new \MongoDB\Client($uriString);

// Prerequisite: Create collections. CRUD operations in transactions must be on existing collections.
$client->selectCollection(
    'mydb1',
    'foo',
    [
        'writeConcern' => new \MongoDB\Driver\WriteConcern(\MongoDB\Driver\WriteConcern::MAJORITY, 1000),
    ]
)->insertOne(['abc' => 0]);

$client->selectCollection(
    'mydb2',
    'bar',
    [
        'writeConcern' => new \MongoDB\Driver\WriteConcern(\MongoDB\Driver\WriteConcern::MAJORITY, 1000),
    ]
)->insertOne(['xyz' => 0]);

// Step 1: Define the callback that specifies the sequence of operations to perform inside the transactions.

$callback = function (\MongoDB\Driver\Session $session) use ($client) {
    $client
        ->selectCollection('mydb1', 'foo')
        ->insertOne(['abc' => 1], ['session' => $session]);

    $client
        ->selectCollection('mydb2', 'bar')
        ->insertOne(['xyz' => 999], ['session' => $session]);
};

// Step 2: Start a client session.

$session = $client->startSession();

// Step 3: Use with_transaction to start a transaction, execute the callback, and commit (or abort on error).

$transactionOptions = [
    'readConcern' => new \MongoDB\Driver\ReadConcern(\MongoDB\Driver\ReadConcern::LOCAL),
    'writeConcern' => new \MongoDB\Driver\WriteConcern(\MongoDB\Driver\WriteConcern::MAJORITY, 1000),
    'readPreference' => new \MongoDB\Driver\ReadPreference(\MongoDB\Driver\ReadPreference::RP_PRIMARY),
];

\MongoDB\with_transaction($session, $callback, $transactionOptions);

The example uses the new callback API for working with transactions, which starts a transaction, executes the specified operations, and commits (or aborts on error). The new callback API also incorporates retry logic for TransientTransactionError or UnknownTransactionCommitResult commit errors.

Important

  • For transactions on MongoDB 4.2 deployments (replica sets and sharded clusters), clients must use MongoDB drivers updated for MongoDB 4.2.
  • When using the drivers, each operation in the transaction must be associated with the session (i.e. pass in the session to each operation).
// For a replica set, include the replica set name and a seedlist of the members in the URI string; e.g.
// string uri = "mongodb://mongodb0.example.com:27017,mongodb1.example.com:27017/?replicaSet=myRepl";
// For a sharded cluster, connect to the mongos instances; e.g.
// string uri = "mongodb://mongos0.example.com:27017,mongos1.example.com:27017/";
var client = new MongoClient(connectionString);

// Prereq: Create collections. CRUD operations in transactions must be on existing collections.
var database1 = client.GetDatabase("mydb1");
var collection1 = database1.GetCollection<BsonDocument>("foo").WithWriteConcern(WriteConcern.WMajority);
collection1.InsertOne(new BsonDocument("abc", 0));

var database2 = client.GetDatabase("mydb2");
var collection2 = database2.GetCollection<BsonDocument>("bar").WithWriteConcern(WriteConcern.WMajority);
collection2.InsertOne(new BsonDocument("xyz", 0));

// Step 1: Start a client session.
using (var session = client.StartSession())
{
    // Step 2: Optional. Define options to use for the transaction.
    var transactionOptions = new TransactionOptions(
        readPreference: ReadPreference.Primary,
        readConcern: ReadConcern.Local,
        writeConcern: WriteConcern.WMajority);

    // Step 3: Define the sequence of operations to perform inside the transactions
    var cancellationToken = CancellationToken.None; // normally a real token would be used
    result = session.WithTransaction(
        (s, ct) =>
        {
            collection1.InsertOne(s, new BsonDocument("abc", 1), cancellationToken: ct);
            collection2.InsertOne(s, new BsonDocument("xyz", 999), cancellationToken: ct);
            return "Inserted into collections in different databases";
        },
        transactionOptions,
        cancellationToken);
}

Core API

The core transaction API does not incorporate retry logic for errors labeled:

The following example incorporates logic to retry the transaction for transient errors and retry the commit for unknown commit error:

Important

To associate read and write operations with a transaction, you must pass the session to each operation in the transaction.


def run_transaction_with_retry(txn_func, session):
    while True:
        try:
            txn_func(session)  # performs transaction
            break
        except (ConnectionFailure, OperationFailure) as exc:
            # If transient error, retry the whole transaction
            if exc.has_error_label("TransientTransactionError"):
                print("TransientTransactionError, retrying "
                      "transaction ...")
                continue
            else:
                raise

def commit_with_retry(session):
    while True:
        try:
            # Commit uses write concern set at transaction start.
            session.commit_transaction()
            print("Transaction committed.")
            break
        except (ConnectionFailure, OperationFailure) as exc:
            # Can retry commit
            if exc.has_error_label("UnknownTransactionCommitResult"):
                print("UnknownTransactionCommitResult, retrying "
                      "commit operation ...")
                continue
            else:
                print("Error during commit ...")
                raise

# Updates two collections in a transactions

def update_employee_info(session):
    employees_coll = session.client.hr.employees
    events_coll = session.client.reporting.events

    with session.start_transaction(
            read_concern=ReadConcern("snapshot"),
            write_concern=WriteConcern(w="majority"),
            read_preference=ReadPreference.PRIMARY):
        employees_coll.update_one(
            {"employee": 3}, {"$set": {"status": "Inactive"}},
            session=session)
        events_coll.insert_one(
            {"employee": 3, "status": {
                "new": "Inactive", "old": "Active"}},
            session=session)

        commit_with_retry(session)

# Start a session.
with client.start_session() as session:
    try:
        run_transaction_with_retry(update_employee_info, session)
    except Exception as exc:
        # Do something with error.
        raise

Important

To associate read and write operations with a transaction, you must pass the session to each operation in the transaction.

void runTransactionWithRetry(Runnable transactional) {
    while (true) {
        try {
            transactional.run();
            break;
        } catch (MongoException e) {
            System.out.println("Transaction aborted. Caught exception during transaction.");

            if (e.hasErrorLabel(MongoException.TRANSIENT_TRANSACTION_ERROR_LABEL)) {
                System.out.println("TransientTransactionError, aborting transaction and retrying ...");
                continue;
            } else {
                throw e;
            }
        }
    }
}

void commitWithRetry(ClientSession clientSession) {
    while (true) {
        try {
            clientSession.commitTransaction();
            System.out.println("Transaction committed");
            break;
        } catch (MongoException e) {
            // can retry commit
            if (e.hasErrorLabel(MongoException.UNKNOWN_TRANSACTION_COMMIT_RESULT_LABEL)) {
                System.out.println("UnknownTransactionCommitResult, retrying commit operation ...");
                continue;
            } else {
                System.out.println("Exception during commit ...");
                throw e;
            }
        }
    }
}

void updateEmployeeInfo() {

    MongoCollection<Document> employeesCollection = client.getDatabase("hr").getCollection("employees");
    MongoCollection<Document> eventsCollection = client.getDatabase("reporting").getCollection("events");

    TransactionOptions txnOptions = TransactionOptions.builder()
            .readPreference(ReadPreference.primary())
            .readConcern(ReadConcern.MAJORITY)
            .writeConcern(WriteConcern.MAJORITY)
            .build();

    try (ClientSession clientSession = client.startSession()) {
        clientSession.startTransaction(txnOptions);

        employeesCollection.updateOne(clientSession,
                Filters.eq("employee", 3),
                Updates.set("status", "Inactive"));
        eventsCollection.insertOne(clientSession,
                new Document("employee", 3).append("status", new Document("new", "Inactive").append("old", "Active")));

        commitWithRetry(clientSession);
    }
}


void updateEmployeeInfoWithRetry() {
    runTransactionWithRetry(this::updateEmployeeInfo);
}

Important

To associate read and write operations with a transaction, you must pass the session to each operation in the transaction.

async function commitWithRetry(session) {
  try {
    await session.commitTransaction();
    console.log('Transaction committed.');
  } catch (error) {
    if (
      error.errorLabels &&
      error.errorLabels.indexOf('UnknownTransactionCommitResult') >= 0
    ) {
      console.log('UnknownTransactionCommitResult, retrying commit operation ...');
      await commitWithRetry(session);
    } else {
      console.log('Error during commit ...');
      throw error;
    }
  }
}

async function runTransactionWithRetry(txnFunc, client, session) {
  try {
    await txnFunc(client, session);
  } catch (error) {
    console.log('Transaction aborted. Caught exception during transaction.');

    // If transient error, retry the whole transaction
    if (error.errorLabels && error.errorLabels.indexOf('TransientTransactionError') >= 0) {
      console.log('TransientTransactionError, retrying transaction ...');
      await runTransactionWithRetry(txnFunc, client, session);
    } else {
      throw error;
    }
  }
}

async function updateEmployeeInfo(client, session) {
  session.startTransaction({
    readConcern: { level: 'snapshot' },
    writeConcern: { w: 'majority' },
    readPreference: 'primary'
  });

  const employeesCollection = client.db('hr').collection('employees');
  const eventsCollection = client.db('reporting').collection('events');

  await employeesCollection.updateOne(
    { employee: 3 },
    { $set: { status: 'Inactive' } },
    { session }
  );
  await eventsCollection.insertOne(
    {
      employee: 3,
      status: { new: 'Inactive', old: 'Active' }
    },
    { session }
  );

  try {
    await commitWithRetry(session);
  } catch (error) {
    await session.abortTransaction();
    throw error;
  }
}

return client.withSession(session =>
  runTransactionWithRetry(updateEmployeeInfo, client, session)
);

Important

To associate read and write operations with a transaction, you must pass the session to each operation in the transaction.

private function runTransactionWithRetry3(callable $txnFunc, \MongoDB\Client $client, \MongoDB\Driver\Session $session)
{
    while (true) {
        try {
            $txnFunc($client, $session);  // performs transaction
            break;
        } catch (\MongoDB\Driver\Exception\CommandException $error) {
            $resultDoc = $error->getResultDocument();

            // If transient error, retry the whole transaction
            if (isset($resultDoc->errorLabels) && in_array('TransientTransactionError', $resultDoc->errorLabels)) {
                continue;
            } else {
                throw $error;
            }
        } catch (\MongoDB\Driver\Exception\Exception $error) {
            throw $error;
        }
    }
}

private function commitWithRetry3(\MongoDB\Driver\Session $session)
{
    while (true) {
        try {
            $session->commitTransaction();
            echo "Transaction committed.\n";
            break;
        } catch (\MongoDB\Driver\Exception\CommandException $error) {
            $resultDoc = $error->getResultDocument();

            if (isset($resultDoc->errorLabels) && in_array('UnknownTransactionCommitResult', $resultDoc->errorLabels)) {
                echo "UnknownTransactionCommitResult, retrying commit operation ...\n";
                continue;
            } else {
                echo "Error during commit ...\n";
                throw $error;
            }
        } catch (\MongoDB\Driver\Exception\Exception $error) {
            echo "Error during commit ...\n";
            throw $error;
        }
    }
}

private function updateEmployeeInfo3(\MongoDB\Client $client, \MongoDB\Driver\Session $session)
{
    $session->startTransaction([
        'readConcern' => new \MongoDB\Driver\ReadConcern("snapshot"),
        'readPrefernece' => new \MongoDB\Driver\ReadPreference(\MongoDB\Driver\ReadPreference::RP_PRIMARY),
        'writeConcern' => new \MongoDB\Driver\WriteConcern(\MongoDB\Driver\WriteConcern::MAJORITY),
    ]);

    try {
        $client->hr->employees->updateOne(
            ['employee' => 3],
            ['$set' => ['status' => 'Inactive']],
            ['session' => $session]
        );
        $client->reporting->events->insertOne(
            ['employee' => 3, 'status' => [ 'new' => 'Inactive', 'old' => 'Active']],
            ['session' => $session]
        );
    } catch (\MongoDB\Driver\Exception\Exception $error) {
        echo "Caught exception during transaction, aborting.\n";
        $session->abortTransaction();
        throw $error;
    }

    $this->commitWithRetry3($session);
}

private function doUpdateEmployeeInfo(\MongoDB\Client $client)
{
    // Start a session.
    $session = $client->startSession();

    try {
        $this->runTransactionWithRetry3([$this, 'updateEmployeeInfo3'], $client, $session);
    } catch (\MongoDB\Driver\Exception\Exception $error) {
        // Do something with error
    }
}
/* takes a session, an out-param for server reply, and out-param for error. */
typedef bool (*txn_func_t) (mongoc_client_session_t *,
                            bson_t *,
                            bson_error_t *);


/* runs transactions with retry logic */
bool
run_transaction_with_retry (txn_func_t txn_func,
                            mongoc_client_session_t *cs,
                            bson_error_t *error)
{
   bson_t reply;
   bool r;

   while (true) {
      /* perform transaction */
      r = txn_func (cs, &reply, error);
      if (r) {
         /* success */
         bson_destroy (&reply);
         return true;
      }

      MONGOC_WARNING ("Transaction aborted: %s", error->message);
      if (mongoc_error_has_label (&reply, "TransientTransactionError")) {
         /* on transient error, retry the whole transaction */
         MONGOC_WARNING ("TransientTransactionError, retrying transaction...");
         bson_destroy (&reply);
      } else {
         /* non-transient error */
         break;
      }
   }

   bson_destroy (&reply);
   return false;
}


/* commit transactions with retry logic */
bool
commit_with_retry (mongoc_client_session_t *cs, bson_error_t *error)
{
   bson_t reply;
   bool r;

   while (true) {
      /* commit uses write concern set at transaction start, see
       * mongoc_transaction_opts_set_write_concern */
      r = mongoc_client_session_commit_transaction (cs, &reply, error);
      if (r) {
         MONGOC_INFO ("Transaction committed");
         break;
      }

      if (mongoc_error_has_label (&reply, "UnknownTransactionCommitResult")) {
         MONGOC_WARNING ("UnknownTransactionCommitResult, retrying commit ...");
         bson_destroy (&reply);
      } else {
         /* commit failed, cannot retry */
         break;
      }
   }

   bson_destroy (&reply);

   return r;
}


/* updates two collections in a transaction and calls commit_with_retry */
bool
update_employee_info (mongoc_client_session_t *cs,
                      bson_t *reply,
                      bson_error_t *error)
{
   mongoc_client_t *client;
   mongoc_collection_t *employees;
   mongoc_collection_t *events;
   mongoc_read_concern_t *rc;
   mongoc_write_concern_t *wc;
   mongoc_transaction_opt_t *txn_opts;
   bson_t opts = BSON_INITIALIZER;
   bson_t *filter = NULL;
   bson_t *update = NULL;
   bson_t *event = NULL;
   bool r;

   bson_init (reply);

   client = mongoc_client_session_get_client (cs);
   employees = mongoc_client_get_collection (client, "hr", "employees");
   events = mongoc_client_get_collection (client, "reporting", "events");

   rc = mongoc_read_concern_new ();
   mongoc_read_concern_set_level (rc, MONGOC_READ_CONCERN_LEVEL_SNAPSHOT);
   wc = mongoc_write_concern_new ();
   mongoc_write_concern_set_w (wc, MONGOC_WRITE_CONCERN_W_MAJORITY);
   txn_opts = mongoc_transaction_opts_new ();
   mongoc_transaction_opts_set_read_concern (txn_opts, rc);
   mongoc_transaction_opts_set_write_concern (txn_opts, wc);

   r = mongoc_client_session_start_transaction (cs, txn_opts, error);
   if (!r) {
      goto done;
   }

   r = mongoc_client_session_append (cs, &opts, error);
   if (!r) {
      goto done;
   }

   filter = BCON_NEW ("employee", BCON_INT32 (3));
   update = BCON_NEW ("$set", "{", "status", "Inactive", "}");
   /* mongoc_collection_update_one will reinitialize reply */
   bson_destroy (reply);
   r = mongoc_collection_update_one (
      employees, filter, update, &opts, reply, error);

   if (!r) {
      goto abort;
   }

   event = BCON_NEW ("employee", BCON_INT32 (3));
   BCON_APPEND (event, "status", "{", "new", "Inactive", "old", "Active", "}");

   bson_destroy (reply);
   r = mongoc_collection_insert_one (events, event, &opts, reply, error);
   if (!r) {
      goto abort;
   }

   r = commit_with_retry (cs, error);

abort:
   if (!r) {
      MONGOC_ERROR ("Aborting due to error in transaction: %s", error->message);
      mongoc_client_session_abort_transaction (cs, NULL);
   }

done:
   mongoc_collection_destroy (employees);
   mongoc_collection_destroy (events);
   mongoc_read_concern_destroy (rc);
   mongoc_write_concern_destroy (wc);
   mongoc_transaction_opts_destroy (txn_opts);
   bson_destroy (&opts);
   bson_destroy (filter);
   bson_destroy (update);
   bson_destroy (event);

   return r;
}


void
example_func (mongoc_client_t *client)
{
   mongoc_client_session_t *cs;
   bson_error_t error;
   bool r;

   cs = mongoc_client_start_session (client, NULL, &error);
   if (!cs) {
      MONGOC_ERROR ("Could not start session: %s", error.message);
      return;
   }

   r = run_transaction_with_retry (update_employee_info, cs, &error);
   if (!r) {
      MONGOC_ERROR ("Could not update employee, permanent error: %s",
                    error.message);
   }

   mongoc_client_session_destroy (cs);
}
using transaction_func = std::function<void(client_session & session)>;
auto run_transaction_with_retry = [](transaction_func txn_func, client_session& session) {
    while (true) {
        try {
            txn_func(session);  // performs transaction.
            break;
        } catch (const operation_exception& oe) {
            std::cout << "Transaction aborted. Caught exception during transaction."
                      << std::endl;
            // If transient error, retry the whole transaction.
            if (oe.has_error_label("TransientTransactionError")) {
                std::cout << "TransientTransactionError, retrying transaction ..."
                          << std::endl;
                continue;
            } else {
                throw oe;
            }
        }
    }
};

auto commit_with_retry = [](client_session& session) {
    while (true) {
        try {
            session.commit_transaction();  // Uses write concern set at transaction start.
            std::cout << "Transaction committed." << std::endl;
            break;
        } catch (const operation_exception& oe) {
            // Can retry commit
            if (oe.has_error_label("UnknownTransactionCommitResult")) {
                std::cout << "UnknownTransactionCommitResult, retrying commit operation ..."
                          << std::endl;
                continue;
            } else {
                std::cout << "Error during commit ..." << std::endl;
                throw oe;
            }
        }
    }
};

// Updates two collections in a transaction
auto update_employee_info = [&](client_session& session) {
    auto& client = session.client();
    auto employees = client["hr"]["employees"];
    auto events = client["reporting"]["events"];

    options::transaction txn_opts;
    read_concern rc;
    rc.acknowledge_level(read_concern::level::k_snapshot);
    txn_opts.read_concern(rc);
    write_concern wc;
    wc.acknowledge_level(write_concern::level::k_majority);
    txn_opts.write_concern(wc);

    session.start_transaction(txn_opts);

    try {
        employees.update_one(
            make_document(kvp("employee", 3)),
            make_document(kvp("$set", make_document(kvp("status", "Inactive")))));
        events.insert_one(make_document(
            kvp("employee", 3),
            kvp("status", make_document(kvp("new", "Inactive"), kvp("old", "Active")))));
    } catch (const operation_exception& oe) {
        std::cout << "Caught exception during transaction, aborting." << std::endl;
        session.abort_transaction();
        throw oe;
    }

    commit_with_retry(session);
};

auto session = client.start_session();
try {
    run_transaction_with_retry(update_employee_info, session);
} catch (const operation_exception& oe) {
    // Do something with error.
    throw oe;
}
public void RunTransactionWithRetry(Action<IMongoClient, IClientSessionHandle> txnFunc, IMongoClient client, IClientSessionHandle session)
{
    while (true)
    {
        try
        {
            txnFunc(client, session); // performs transaction
            break;
        }
        catch (MongoException exception)
        {
            // if transient error, retry the whole transaction
            if (exception.HasErrorLabel("TransientTransactionError"))
            {
                Console.WriteLine("TransientTransactionError, retrying transaction.");
                continue;
            }
            else
            {
                throw;
            }
        }
    }
}

public void CommitWithRetry(IClientSessionHandle session)
{
    while (true)
    {
        try
        {
            session.CommitTransaction();
            Console.WriteLine("Transaction committed.");
            break;
        }
        catch (MongoException exception)
        {
            // can retry commit
            if (exception.HasErrorLabel("UnknownTransactionCommitResult"))
            {
                Console.WriteLine("UnknownTransactionCommitResult, retrying commit operation");
                continue;
            }
            else
            {
                Console.WriteLine($"Error during commit: {exception.Message}.");
                throw;
            }
        }
    }
}

// updates two collections in a transaction
public void UpdateEmployeeInfo(IMongoClient client, IClientSessionHandle session)
{
    var employeesCollection = client.GetDatabase("hr").GetCollection<BsonDocument>("employees");
    var eventsCollection = client.GetDatabase("reporting").GetCollection<BsonDocument>("events");

    session.StartTransaction(new TransactionOptions(
        readConcern: ReadConcern.Snapshot,
        writeConcern: WriteConcern.WMajority,
        readPreference: ReadPreference.Primary));

    try
    {
        employeesCollection.UpdateOne(
            session,
            Builders<BsonDocument>.Filter.Eq("employee", 3),
            Builders<BsonDocument>.Update.Set("status", "Inactive"));
        eventsCollection.InsertOne(
            session,
            new BsonDocument
            {
                { "employee", 3 },
                { "status", new BsonDocument { { "new", "Inactive" }, { "old", "Active" } } }
            });
    }
    catch (Exception exception)
    {
        Console.WriteLine($"Caught exception during transaction, aborting: {exception.Message}.");
        session.AbortTransaction();
        throw;
    }

    CommitWithRetry(session);
}

public void UpdateEmployeeInfoWithTransactionRetry(IMongoClient client)
{
    // start a session
    using (var session = client.StartSession())
    {
        try
        {
            RunTransactionWithRetry(UpdateEmployeeInfo, client, session);
        }
        catch (Exception exception)
        {
            // do something with error
            Console.WriteLine($"Non transient exception caught during transaction: ${exception.Message}.");
        }
    }
}

Important

To associate read and write operations with a transaction, you must pass the session to each operation in the transaction.

sub runTransactionWithRetry {
    my ( $txnFunc, $session ) = @_;

    LOOP: {
        eval {
            $txnFunc->($session); # performs transaction
        };
        if ( my $error = $@ ) {
            print("Transaction aborted-> Caught exception during transaction.\n");
            # If transient error, retry the whole transaction
            if ( $error->has_error_label("TransientTransactionError") ) {
                print("TransientTransactionError, retrying transaction ->..\n");
                redo LOOP;
            }
            else {
                die $error;
            }
        }
    }

    return;
}

sub commitWithRetry {
    my ($session) = @_;

    LOOP: {
        eval {
            $session->commit_transaction(); # Uses write concern set at transaction start.
            print("Transaction committed->\n");
        };
        if ( my $error = $@ ) {
            # Can retry commit
            if ( $error->has_error_label("UnknownTransactionCommitResult") ) {
                print("UnknownTransactionCommitResult, retrying commit operation ->..\n");
                redo LOOP;
            }
            else {
                print("Error during commit ->..\n");
                die $error;
            }
        }
    }

    return;
}

# Updates two collections in a transactions

sub updateEmployeeInfo {
    my ($session) = @_;
    my $employeesCollection = $session->client->ns("hr.employees");
    my $eventsCollection    = $session->client->ns("reporting.events");

    $session->start_transaction(
        {
            readConcern  => { level => "snapshot" },
            writeConcern => { w     => "majority" },
            readPreference => 'primary',
        }
    );

    eval {
        $employeesCollection->update_one(
            { employee => 3 }, { '$set' => { status => "Inactive" } },
            { session => $session},
        );
        $eventsCollection->insert_one(
            { employee => 3, status => { new => "Inactive", old => "Active" } },
            { session => $session},
        );
    };
    if ( my $error = $@ ) {
        print("Caught exception during transaction, aborting->\n");
        $session->abort_transaction();
        die $error;
    }

    commitWithRetry($session);
}

# Start a session
my $session = $client->start_session();

eval {
    runTransactionWithRetry(\&updateEmployeeInfo, $session);
};
if ( my $error = $@ ) {
    # Do something with error
}

$session->end_session();

Important

To associate read and write operations with a transaction, you must pass the session to each operation in the transaction.

def run_transaction_with_retry(session)
  begin
    yield session # performs transaction
  rescue Mongo::Error => e
    puts 'Transaction aborted. Caught exception during transaction.'
    raise unless e.label?('TransientTransactionError')
    puts "TransientTransactionError, retrying transaction ..."
    retry
  end
end

def commit_with_retry(session)
  begin
    session.commit_transaction
    puts 'Transaction committed.'
  rescue Mongo::Error => e
    if e.label?('UnknownTransactionCommitResult')
      puts "UnknownTransactionCommitResult, retrying commit operation ..."
      retry
    else
      puts 'Error during commit ...'
      raise
    end
  end
end

# updates two collections in a transaction

def update_employee_info(session)
  employees_coll = session.client.use(:hr)[:employees]
  events_coll = session.client.use(:reporting)[:events]

  session.start_transaction(read_concern: { level: :snapshot },
                            write_concern: { w: :majority })
  employees_coll.update_one({ employee: 3 }, { '$set' => { status: 'Inactive'} },
                            session: session)
  events_coll.insert_one({ employee: 3, status: { new: 'Inactive', old: 'Active' } },
                         session: session)
  commit_with_retry(session)
end

session = client.start_session

begin
  run_transaction_with_retry(session) { |s| update_employee_info(s) }
rescue StandardError => e
  # Do something with error
  raise
end

Important

To associate read and write operations with a transaction, you must pass the session to each operation in the transaction.

  def updateEmployeeInfo(database: MongoDatabase, observable: SingleObservable[ClientSession]): SingleObservable[ClientSession] = {
    observable.map(clientSession => {
      val employeesCollection = database.getCollection("employees")
      val eventsCollection = database.getCollection("events")

      val transactionOptions = TransactionOptions.builder()
        .readPreference(ReadPreference.primary())
        .readConcern(ReadConcern.SNAPSHOT)
        .writeConcern(WriteConcern.MAJORITY)
        .build()
      clientSession.startTransaction(transactionOptions)
      employeesCollection.updateOne(clientSession, Filters.eq("employee", 3), Updates.set("status", "Inactive"))
        .subscribe((res: UpdateResult) => println(res))
      eventsCollection.insertOne(clientSession, Document("employee" -> 3, "status" -> Document("new" -> "Inactive", "old" -> "Active")))
        .subscribe((res: Completed) => println(res))

      clientSession
    })
  }

  def commitAndRetry(observable: SingleObservable[Completed]): SingleObservable[Completed] = {
    observable.recoverWith({
      case e: MongoException if e.hasErrorLabel(MongoException.UNKNOWN_TRANSACTION_COMMIT_RESULT_LABEL) => {
        println("UnknownTransactionCommitResult, retrying commit operation ...")
        commitAndRetry(observable)
      }
      case e: Exception => {
        println(s"Exception during commit ...: $e")
        throw e
      }
    })
  }

  def runTransactionAndRetry(observable: SingleObservable[Completed]): SingleObservable[Completed] = {
    observable.recoverWith({
      case e: MongoException if e.hasErrorLabel(MongoException.TRANSIENT_TRANSACTION_ERROR_LABEL) => {
        println("TransientTransactionError, aborting transaction and retrying ...")
        runTransactionAndRetry(observable)
      }
    })
  }

  def updateEmployeeInfoWithRetry(client: MongoClient): SingleObservable[Completed] = {

    val database = client.getDatabase("hr")
    val updateEmployeeInfoObservable: Observable[ClientSession] = updateEmployeeInfo(database, client.startSession())
    val commitTransactionObservable: SingleObservable[Completed] =
      updateEmployeeInfoObservable.flatMap(clientSession => clientSession.commitTransaction())
    val commitAndRetryObservable: SingleObservable[Completed] = commitAndRetry(commitTransactionObservable)

    runTransactionAndRetry(commitAndRetryObservable)
  }
}
	runTransactionWithRetry := func(sctx mongo.SessionContext, txnFn func(mongo.SessionContext) error) error {
		for {
			err := txnFn(sctx) // Performs transaction.
			if err == nil {
				return nil
			}

			log.Println("Transaction aborted. Caught exception during transaction.")

			// If transient error, retry the whole transaction
			if cmdErr, ok := err.(mongo.CommandError); ok && cmdErr.HasErrorLabel("TransientTransactionError") {
				log.Println("TransientTransactionError, retrying transaction...")
				continue
			}
			return err
		}
	}

	commitWithRetry := func(sctx mongo.SessionContext) error {
		for {
			err := sctx.CommitTransaction(sctx)
			switch e := err.(type) {
			case nil:
				log.Println("Transaction committed.")
				return nil
			case mongo.CommandError:
				// Can retry commit
				if e.HasErrorLabel("UnknownTransactionCommitResult") {
					log.Println("UnknownTransactionCommitResult, retrying commit operation...")
					continue
				}
				log.Println("Error during commit...")
				return e
			default:
				log.Println("Error during commit...")
				return e
			}
		}
	}

	// Updates two collections in a transaction.
	updateEmployeeInfo := func(sctx mongo.SessionContext) error {
		employees := client.Database("hr").Collection("employees")
		events := client.Database("reporting").Collection("events")

		err := sctx.StartTransaction(options.Transaction().
			SetReadConcern(readconcern.Snapshot()).
			SetWriteConcern(writeconcern.New(writeconcern.WMajority())),
		)
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}

		_, err = employees.UpdateOne(sctx, bson.D{{"employee", 3}}, bson.D{{"$set", bson.D{{"status", "Inactive"}}}})
		if err != nil {
			sctx.AbortTransaction(sctx)
			log.Println("caught exception during transaction, aborting.")
			return err
		}
		_, err = events.InsertOne(sctx, bson.D{{"employee", 3}, {"status", bson.D{{"new", "Inactive"}, {"old", "Active"}}}})
		if err != nil {
			sctx.AbortTransaction(sctx)
			log.Println("caught exception during transaction, aborting.")
			return err
		}

		return commitWithRetry(sctx)
	}

	return client.UseSessionWithOptions(
		ctx, options.Session().SetDefaultReadPreference(readpref.Primary()),
		func(sctx mongo.SessionContext) error {
			return runTransactionWithRetry(sctx, updateEmployeeInfo)
		},
	)
}

Driver Versions

For transactions on MongoDB 4.2 deployments (replica sets and sharded clusters), clients must use MongoDB drivers updated for MongoDB 4.2:

For transactions on MongoDB 4.0 replica sets, clients require MongoDB drivers updated for MongoDB 4.0 or later.

  • Java 3.8.0
  • Python 3.7.0
  • C 1.11.0
  • C# 2.7
  • Node 3.1.0
  • Ruby 2.6.0
  • Perl 2.0.0
  • PHPC 1.5.0
  • Scala 2.4.0

Transaction Error Handling

Regardless of the database system, whether MongoDB or relational databases, applications should take measures to handle errors during transaction commits and incorporate retry logic for transactions.

"TransientTransactionError"

The individual write operations inside the transaction are not retryable, regardless of the value of retryWrites. If an operation encounters an error associated with the label "TransientTransactionError", such as when the primary steps down, the transaction as a whole can be retried.

  • The callback API incorporates retry logic for "TransientTransactionError".
  • The core transaction API does not incorporate retry logic for "TransientTransactionError". To handle "TransientTransactionError", applications should explicitly incorporate retry logic for the error.

"UnknownTransactionCommitResult"

The commit operations are retryable write operations. If the commit operation encounters an error, MongoDB drivers retry the commit regardless of the value of retryWrites.

If the commit operation encounters an error labeled "UnknownTransactionCommitResult", the commit can be retried.

  • The callback API incorporates retry logic for "UnknownTransactionCommitResult".
  • The core transaction API does not incorporate retry logic for "UnknownTransactionCommitResult". To handle "UnknownTransactionCommitResult", applications should explicitly incorporate retry logic for the error.

Driver Version Errors

On sharded clusters with multiple mongos instances, performing transactions with drivers updated for MongoDB 4.0 (instead of MongoDB 4.2) will fail and can result in errors, including:

Note

Your driver may return a different error. Refer to your driver’s documentation for details.

Error Code Error Message
251 cannot continue txnId -1 for session ... with txnId 1
50940 cannot commit with no participants

For transactions on MongoDB 4.2 deployments (replica sets and sharded clusters), use the MongoDB drivers updated for MongoDB 4.2

Additional Information

The following mongo shell methods are available for transactions: