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Network and Configuration Hardening

To reduce the risk exposure of the entire MongoDB system, ensure that only trusted hosts have access to MongoDB.

MongoDB Configuration Hardening

IP Binding

Starting with MongoDB 3.6, MongoDB binaries, mongod and mongos, bind to localhost by default. From MongoDB versions 2.6 to 3.4, only the binaries from the official MongoDB RPM (Red Hat, CentOS, Fedora Linux, and derivatives) and DEB (Debian, Ubuntu, and derivatives) packages would bind to localhost by default. To learn more about this change, see Localhost Binding Compatibility Changes.

Warning

Before binding to a non-localhost (e.g. publicly accessible) IP address, ensure you have secured your cluster from unauthorized access. For a complete list of security recommendations, see Security Checklist. At minimum, consider enabling authentication and hardening network infrastructure.

Warning

Make sure that your mongod and mongos instances are only accessible on trusted networks. If your system has more than one network interface, bind MongoDB programs to the private or internal network interface.

For more information, see IP Binding.

HTTP Status Interface and REST API

Changed in version 3.6: MongoDB 3.6 removes the deprecated HTTP interface and REST API to MongoDB.

Network Hardening

Firewalls

Firewalls allow administrators to filter and control access to a system by providing granular control over network communications. For administrators of MongoDB, the following capabilities are important: limiting incoming traffic on a specific port to specific systems and limiting incoming traffic from untrusted hosts.

On Linux systems, the iptables interface provides access to the underlying netfilter firewall. On Windows systems, netsh command line interface provides access to the underlying Windows Firewall. For additional information about firewall configuration, see:

For best results and to minimize overall exposure, ensure that only traffic from trusted sources can reach mongod and mongos instances and that the mongod and mongos instances can only connect to trusted outputs.

See also

For MongoDB deployments on Amazon’s web services, see the Amazon EC2 page, which addresses Amazon’s Security Groups and other EC2-specific security features.

Virtual Private Networks

Virtual private networks, or VPNs, make it possible to link two networks over an encrypted and limited-access trusted network. Typically, MongoDB users who use VPNs use TLS/SSL rather than IPSEC VPNs for performance issues.

Depending on configuration and implementation, VPNs provide for certificate validation and a choice of encryption protocols, which requires a rigorous level of authentication and identification of all clients. Furthermore, because VPNs provide a secure tunnel, by using a VPN connection to control access to your MongoDB instance, you can prevent tampering and “man-in-the-middle” attacks.